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Younger Dryas

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Arctic

Arctic  

The area lying above 66.5° North that is dominated by the Arctic Ocean but also includes large land areas in Canada, Russia, Greenland, Scandinavia, Iceland, and Alaska. Some of the land areas, ...
Civilization and Environment

Civilization and Environment  

[This article examines the environmental background to human development and the impact of human populations on the natural world, especially the effects of early farming and commodity ...
dating methods

dating methods  

During the last century geologists constructed a relative time-scale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. Depositional rates of sediments have also been employed as a ...
glaciation

glaciation  

1 The process by which supercooled water droplets change into ice crystals in the top of a cumulonimbus cloud as it reaches the calvus stage. The cloud may subsequently develop capillatus features or ...
Holocene

Holocene  

The most recent geological epoch, stretching from 12 000 years ago to the present day. See Fisch in H. von Stoch et al., eds (2004).
Holocene In the Sahara

Holocene In the Sahara  

[This case study describes the tremendous climatic and environmental changes, relative to the present, undergone in northern Africa during the last 2°C increase in global temperature.] The tropical ...
paleoclimate

paleoclimate  

The climate of a particular period in the geological past, before historical records or instrumental observations. Palaeoclimatology uses evidence from glaciers and ice sheets, geology, sediments, ...

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