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Christian Wolff

(1679—1754)

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Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten  

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Philosophy
(1714–62)German aesthetician. Baumgarten was born in Berlin and educated at Halle, where he became professor before moving in 1740 to a chair at Frankfurt. He taught a modified Leibnizian system, ...
Christian August Crusius

Christian August Crusius  

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Philosophy
(1715–75)German theologian and philosopher. Crusius was professor of philosophy at Leipzig, and is principally remembered as one of the targets of Kant, particularly in his Dreams of a Spirit-Seer ...
Giancinto Sigismondo Gerdil

Giancinto Sigismondo Gerdil  

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Philosophy
(1718–1802)Savoyard theologian, and eventually (1777), cardinal of the church. A disciple of Malebranche, and opponent of Locke, Wolff, and Newton, Gerdil wrote a critique of Émile from an ...
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz  

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Philosophy
(1646–1716),German philosopher and mathematician, and one of the chief forces leading to the German Enlightenment. He is chiefly remembered in a literary context for parodies of his ‘optimistic’ ...
Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant  

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Philosophy
(1724–1804).German philosopher. His Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764) and Critique of Judgement (1790) laid the foundations of much aesthetic theory, especially in ...
Samuel Pufendorf

Samuel Pufendorf  

(1632–94)Jurist whose main contribution was to international law. Born near Chemniz, Saxony, he studied law at Leipzig and Jena, and taught at Heidelberg and Lund. He was imprisoned by the Danes ...

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