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Vietnam War

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Fidel Valdez Ramos

Fidel Valdez Ramos  

(b. 18 Mar. 1928).President of the Philippines 1992–8Early careerBorn in Lingayen into one of the country's most influential families, he graduated from the US Military Academy at West Point, and was ...
Ho Chi Minh

Ho Chi Minh  

(b. 19 May 1890, d. 3 Sept. 1969).President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam 1945–69Rise to powerBorn Nguyen Tat Thanh as the son of a local scholar in Kim Lienh (central Annam), he was educated ...
John Wayne

John Wayne  

1907–1979)US film star, known all over the world as ‘Duke’ or ‘Big John’. Wayne spent fifty years in films bringing a vicarious enjoyment to millions as the virile quick-drawing hero of the American ...
Le Duan

Le Duan  

(b. 7 Apr. 1907, d. 10 July 1986).First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Vietnamese Communist Party 1960–76; General Secretary 1976–86 Born in the Quang Tri Province (central Vietnam), he ...
National Party, New Zealand

National Party, New Zealand  

Contemporary history (up to 1986)Established as New Zealand's main conservative party by a merger of the United and Reform Parties in 1936, it derived its support from rural areas and the wealthier ...
Nguyen Van Linh

Nguyen Van Linh  

(b. 1 July 1915, d. 27 Apr. 1998).General Secretary of Vietnamese Communist Party 1986–92 Born Nguyen Van Cuc in Hanoi, he soon became active against the French colonial occupation, was imprisoned, ...
Nixon Doctrine

Nixon Doctrine  

(USA) Announced by Richard Nixon in June 1969, it asserted that the USA would disengage its troops from mainland Asia, even if this threatened domestic stability there. Nixon had been elected in 1968 ...
Norman Eric Kirk

Norman Eric Kirk  

(b. 6 Jan. 1923, d. 31 Aug. 1974).Prime Minister of New Zealand 1972–4Born in Waimate (Canterbury) as the son of a cabinet‐maker, he worked on the New Zealand railways, joined the Labour Party, and ...
Norodom Sihanouk

Norodom Sihanouk  

(1922– )Cambodian king (1941–55; 1993–2004), Prime Minister (1955–60), and head of state (1960–70; 1975–76). Two years after Cambodian independence (1953) Sihanouk abdicated in order to become ...
Olof Joachim Palme

Olof Joachim Palme  

(1927–86).Prime Minister of Sweden 1969–76, 1982–6Early historyBorn in Stockholm into a wealthy family, he studied at Kenyon College, Ohio, and then read law at Stockholm University. As chairman of ...
Prince Souphanouvong Tiao

Prince Souphanouvong Tiao  

(b. 13 July 1909, d. 9 Jan 1995).President of the Laos People's Democratic Republic 1975–86 One of the nephews of King Sisavang Vong (r. 1904–59), he studied engineering in Paris and then worked as ...
Prince Souvanna Phouma

Prince Souvanna Phouma  

(1901–84)Laotian statesman. A member of the post-war provisional government (1945–46), he opposed French recolonization and was elected Premier in 1951. During his first premiership (1951–54) civil ...
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake

Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake  

(b. 11 Feb. 1904, d. 8 Dec. 1983).Prime Minister of New Zealand 1957, 1960–72A successful farmer from the area north of Wellington, he entered New Zealand politics in 1932 as an MP for the Reform ...
Vo Nguyen Giap

Vo Nguyen Giap  

(b. 1912).Vietnamese general Born in An Xa (Quang Binh Province, central Vietnam) and educated at Hue and the French University of Hanoi, he joined the Revolutionary Party of Young Vietnam (Tan Viet) ...
Walter Reuther

Walter Reuther  

(1907–1970), labor leader.Walter Philip Reuther was born in Wheeling, West Virginia, the son of German immigrants. His father, a trade unionist and socialist, taught his sons that workers needed ...

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