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Leon Trotsky

(1879—1940) Russian revolutionary

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Aleksky Brusilov

Aleksky Brusilov  

(1853–1926)Russian general. He won a brilliant campaign against Austria-Hungary (1916) in south-west Russia, which, although it cost Russia at least a million lives, forced Germany to divert troops ...
Anton Ivanovich Denikin

Anton Ivanovich Denikin  

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(1872–1947)Russian general and counter-revolutionary. The son of a serf, he served the Provisional Government as commander of the Western Front in 1917. After the October Revolution (see Russian ...
C. L. R. James

C. L. R. James  

(1901 –1989)One of the leading Caribbean intellectuals of the twentieth century, James wore many hats: historian, journalist, novelist, playwright, cultural critic, political theorist, and constant ...
Cdr Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze

Cdr Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze  

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(1885–1925),Soviet politician, military leader, and theorist; founder and ideologue of the Red Army, Soviet military doctrine, and Soviet preparations for total war. A student at St Petersburg ...
Grigori Zinoviev

Grigori Zinoviev  

(b. 11 Sept. 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politician Born Radomyslsky Apfelbaum in Elizavetgrad, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1901 and supported the Bolshevik faction in 1903, ...
International

International  

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History
Associations formed to unite socialist and communist organizations throughout the world. There were four Internationals. The First (1864), at which Marx was a leading figure, met in London but was ...
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov

Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov  

(1881–1969)Soviet statesman and marshal. One of the oldest of the Bolsheviks, he became president (1953–60) after Stalin's death.Born in Verkhne, Dnepropetrovsk, the son of a miner, Voroshilov worked ...
Lázaro Cárdenas

Lázaro Cárdenas  

(b. 21 May 1895, d. 19 Oct. 1970).President of Mexico 1934–40 A general in the Mexican army, he was instrumental in the foundation (with Calles) of the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional ...
Lenin

Lenin  

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(1870–1924)A Marxist theoretician and revolutionary, born in Russia, whose early life was characterized by a more or less orthodox Marxism. However, from the late 1890s he developed a distinctive ...
Lev Borisovich Kamenev

Lev Borisovich Kamenev  

(22 July 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politicianBorn Lev Borisovich Rosenfeld in Moscow, he was forced to abandon his law degree at Moscow University in 1902 owing to his political activities. He ...
Marshal Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevskiy

Marshal Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevskiy  

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(1893–1937),Russian and Soviet commander and military thinker. Born into down-at-heel Russian aristocracy, he graduated with the highest marks ever awarded from the Aleksandrovsk officer training ...
Marshal Vassiliy Sokolovsky

Marshal Vassiliy Sokolovsky  

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(1897–1968),Soviet wartime commander and military thinker, who gave his name to the definitive work Strategy in the 1960s which announced the ‘revolution in military affairs’ brought about by the ...
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin

Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin  

(1888–1938)Soviet statesman, newspaper editor, and communist theoretician.Born in Moscow, the son of a schoolteacher, Bukharin joined an anti-tsarist political group as a university student, becoming ...
North Russia intervention force

North Russia intervention force  

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(1918–19),international US, British, French, and Canadian force of all three services inserted into north Russia through Archangel and Murmansk as part of the muddled and unsuccessful intervention in ...
pursuit

pursuit  

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Is the most demanding—and often most neglected—phase of war. Most casualties occur not in the initial clash of arms but when one side breaks and runs. However, once the initial ...
Red Army

Red Army  

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Soviet army formed by Trotsky as Commissar for War (1918–25) to save the Bolshevik revolution during the Russian Civil War. For trained officers, Trotsky had to rely on former officers of the ...
Russian Civil War

Russian Civil War  

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(1918–21)A conflict fought in Russia between the anti-communist White Army supported by some Western powers, and the Red Army of the Soviets in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is ...
Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution  

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History
(1917)The overthrow of the government of Nicholas II in Russia and its replacement by Bolshevik rule under the leadership of Lenin. It was completed in two stages – a liberal (Menshevik) revolution ...
soviet

soviet  

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(Russian, “council”) An elected governing council in the former Soviet Union. Russian Soviets gained their revolutionary connotation in 1905, when the St Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies was ...
Tito

Tito  

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(1892–1980)Yugoslav Marshal and statesman, Prime Minister (1945–53) and President (1953–80). Born in Croatia, he served in the Austro‐Hungarian army during World War I and was captured by the ...

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