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acts of bishops

acts of bishops  

Bishops' acts refer to the texts (charters, letters) issued by bishops whether or not through the intermediary of an episcopal chancery. The earliest acts are testaments, by which are designated ...
Alonso Pecha

Alonso Pecha  

(1327/1329–1389)Born into a family in the service of the kings of Castile, he was the brother of Pedro Fernandez Pecha, founder of the Order of St Jerome (Hieronymites). Italian ...
Ambrosian chant

Ambrosian chant  

Liturgical song of the Ambrosian rite of Milan. Strophic ‘Ambrosian’ hymns (some by Ambrose) were widely influential. Some prose chants are related to eastern Greek troparia.PJT. Bailey, The ...
antijudaism

antijudaism  

Religious hostility towards Jews developed throughout the Middle Ages, taking different forms in different times and places. A distinction must be made between the official attitude of the Church and ...
Antonines

Antonines  

The Hospitaller Order of St Anthony in Viennois (Isère) arose in c.1095. At this time there appeared in Europe a sickness called ignis sacer by reason of the burning pains ...
architecture, Civil

architecture, Civil  

Civil architecture includes public buildings and private dwellings, but excludes military constructions and rural architecture. Important public buildings comprised essentially imperial and royal ...
Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St

Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St  

A monastic Rule which exists in three main forms, two for men and one for women; their relationship is disputed. As there is no reference to a rule in St Augustine's Retractationes, his authorship ...
Communication Routes

Communication Routes  

Up to the 7th c., the West's system of communications remained, in its main orientations as well as its structures, indebted to the Roman inheritance. From the Ports of the ...
consecration of kings

consecration of kings  

In the late Middle Ages, the French term sacre had several different meanings: sacre was used for the consecration of Bishops the procession of the holy sacrament on Corpus Christi ...
Credo

Credo  

Section of the Proper of the Mass frequently set by composers. Operatically speaking, the ‘Credo’ refers to Iago's aria in Act II of Verdi's Otello in which he states his belief in a cruel god.
Cyril of Turov

Cyril of Turov  

(died before 1182)Rus' monk, bishop of Turov, consecrated before 1169, a talented theologian endowed with remarkable force of literary expression, Cyril was surnamed the “second Chrysostom”. A master ...
Elipandus

Elipandus  

(c.717–802), Abp. of Toledo. He was the originator and chief exponent of the Adoptianist heresy in Spain. His doctrines were condemned as heretical at various synods from 792 onwards, but the Arab ...
Fontevraud

Fontevraud  

In France, the site of a major Benedictine abbey of the 11th and 12th centuries; Henry II of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their son Richard I are buried there.
Galicia

Galicia  

A former Roman province, between 411 and 585 Gallaecia became an independent kingdom ruled by the Suevi, whom Martin of Braga converted to Christianity in the mid 6th century. The ...
Gascony

Gascony  

A region and former province of SW France, in the northern foothills of the Pyrenees, which having united with Aquitaine in the 11th century, was held by England between 1154 and 1453.Gascons were ...
Hispanic Liturgy

Hispanic Liturgy  

More prudent than the traditional terms “Mozarabic" or “Visigothic”, the term “Hispanic” prevails today to designate the former Latin rite of the Church of Spain. The original stages of its ...
Hispano-Arabic Literature

Hispano-Arabic Literature  

The Arabic literature of Spain occupies a considerable place in the enormous output of medieval Islam. Here we will envisage it only under the familiar angle of its relations with ...
Jacob Ben Reuben

Jacob Ben Reuben  

(late 12th c.)The Jew Jacob ben Reuben seems to have lived in the late 12th c. in northern Spain or southern France. His polemical work Sefer Milhamoth Adonay (Book ...
John of Plano Carpini

John of Plano Carpini  

(c.1180–1252)Traveller, born at Piano di Carpine, near Perugia (Italy). St Francis sent him to Saxony as guardian of the Franciscan Order (1221); he was provincial of Germany (1228), Spain ...
Juan Ruiz

Juan Ruiz  

(c.1283–c.1350) Author of the Libro de buen amor (or Libro del arcipreste).The Libro is a (pseudo-)autobiographical work that draws on a wide range of medieval genres, including exempla, fabliaux ...

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