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acts of bishops

acts of bishops  

Bishops' acts refer to the texts (charters, letters) issued by bishops whether or not through the intermediary of an episcopal chancery. The earliest acts are testaments, by which are designated ...
Alonso Pecha

Alonso Pecha  

(1327/1329–1389)Born into a family in the service of the kings of Castile, he was the brother of Pedro Fernandez Pecha, founder of the Order of St Jerome (Hieronymites). Italian ...
Ambrosian chant

Ambrosian chant  

Liturgical song of the Ambrosian rite of Milan. Strophic ‘Ambrosian’ hymns (some by Ambrose) were widely influential. Some prose chants are related to eastern Greek troparia.PJT. Bailey, The ...
antijudaism

antijudaism  

Religious hostility towards Jews developed throughout the Middle Ages, taking different forms in different times and places. A distinction must be made between the official attitude of the Church and ...
Antonines

Antonines  

The Hospitaller Order of St Anthony in Viennois (Isère) arose in c.1095. At this time there appeared in Europe a sickness called ignis sacer by reason of the burning pains ...
Aranda, Pedro Pablo, Conde de

Aranda, Pedro Pablo, Conde de  

(1719–1798), Spanish official. Aranda, a grandee from one of Spain's great families, was originally intended for a career in the Roman Catholic Church, and studied at the seminary of Bologna ...
architecture, Civil

architecture, Civil  

Civil architecture includes public buildings and private dwellings, but excludes military constructions and rural architecture. Important public buildings comprised essentially imperial and royal ...
Argentina

Argentina  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Painful economic reforms have stimulated rapid economic growth, but economic and social stability remain elusiveTo the west, Argentina is bounded by the southernmost section of the Andes, but most of ...
Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St

Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St  

A monastic Rule which exists in three main forms, two for men and one for women; their relationship is disputed. As there is no reference to a rule in St Augustine's Retractationes, his authorship ...
Benito Jeronimo Feijoo

Benito Jeronimo Feijoo  

(1676–1764), Spanish theologian and essayist. Feijoo was probably the single most important figure in the early-eighteenth-century phase of the Enlightenment in Spain. The eldest son of a family of ...
Carlism

Carlism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A Spanish conservative political movement originating in support of Don Carlos, brother of Fernando VII (died 1833), who claimed the throne in place of Fernando's daughter Isabella. The movement ...
Central America

Central America  

Central American children's books reflect the history and culture of the bridge of seven nations (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama) that connects North and ...
Colombia

Colombia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A country in the extreme north-west of the South American continent, the only South American country with coasts on both the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans, separated by the isthmus of Panama. To ...
Communication Routes

Communication Routes  

Up to the 7th c., the West's system of communications remained, in its main orientations as well as its structures, indebted to the Roman inheritance. From the Ports of the ...
consecration of kings

consecration of kings  

In the late Middle Ages, the French term sacre had several different meanings: sacre was used for the consecration of Bishops the procession of the holy sacrament on Corpus Christi ...
Counter-Enlightenment

Counter-Enlightenment  

The notion of Counter-Enlightenment must be approached with care because the boundary between enlightened men of letters and adversaries of the Enlightenment is not so easily established as is ...
Credo

Credo  

Section of the Proper of the Mass frequently set by composers. Operatically speaking, the ‘Credo’ refers to Iago's aria in Act II of Verdi's Otello in which he states his belief in a cruel god.
Cyril of Turov

Cyril of Turov  

(died before 1182)Rus' monk, bishop of Turov, consecrated before 1169, a talented theologian endowed with remarkable force of literary expression, Cyril was surnamed the “second Chrysostom”. A master ...
Elipandus

Elipandus  

(c.717–802), Abp. of Toledo. He was the originator and chief exponent of the Adoptianist heresy in Spain. His doctrines were condemned as heretical at various synods from 792 onwards, but the Arab ...
Fontevraud

Fontevraud  

In France, the site of a major Benedictine abbey of the 11th and 12th centuries; Henry II of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their son Richard I are buried there.

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