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Abraham IbnEzra

Abraham IbnEzra  

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Religion
(c.1089–1164).Jewish philosopher, poet, and biblical commentator. He wrote both secular and religious poetry, commentaries on all the books of the Bible (those to the early prophets, Chronicles, ...
acts of bishops

acts of bishops  

Bishops' acts refer to the texts (charters, letters) issued by bishops whether or not through the intermediary of an episcopal chancery. The earliest acts are testaments, by which are designated ...
Alessandro Tassoni

Alessandro Tassoni  

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Literature
(1565–1635)Italian poet, philosopher, historian, politician, and member of several learned Academies. He joined the entourage of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza in Rome (1597) and later became a court ...
Alonso Pecha

Alonso Pecha  

(1327/1329–1389)Born into a family in the service of the kings of Castile, he was the brother of Pedro Fernandez Pecha, founder of the Order of St Jerome (Hieronymites). Italian ...
Alumbrados

Alumbrados  

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Religion
Loosely knit groups of spiritual persons who lived a retired life of prayer and contemplation in 16th-cent. Spain. It is unclear whether several of them were unorthodox, but some Alumbrados were ...
Ambrosian chant

Ambrosian chant  

Liturgical song of the Ambrosian rite of Milan. Strophic ‘Ambrosian’ hymns (some by Ambrose) were widely influential. Some prose chants are related to eastern Greek troparia.PJT. Bailey, The ...
Andean Region

Andean Region  

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The Andean region, if a true economic unit, is composed of the present-day republics of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, an area larger than France. Andean social or cultural zones also ...
antijudaism

antijudaism  

Religious hostility towards Jews developed throughout the Middle Ages, taking different forms in different times and places. A distinction must be made between the official attitude of the Church and ...
Anton Giulio Brignole Sale

Anton Giulio Brignole Sale  

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Literature
(1605–62).Novelist and writer, who was born into an eminent Genoese family, and held various public offices, including serving as ambassador to Madrid (1643–7) at a difficult period in relations ...
Antonines

Antonines  

The Hospitaller Order of St Anthony in Viennois (Isère) arose in c.1095. At this time there appeared in Europe a sickness called ignis sacer by reason of the burning pains ...
Antonio Vignali

Antonio Vignali  

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Literature
(1501–59).Born in Siena, he was one of the founders of the Accademia degli Intronati. His dialogue, La cazzaria (1530/40), both discusses in philosophical detail the prerogatives of different sexual ...
Aranda, Pedro Pablo, Conde de

Aranda, Pedro Pablo, Conde de  

(1719–1798), Spanish official. Aranda, a grandee from one of Spain's great families, was originally intended for a career in the Roman Catholic Church, and studied at the seminary of Bologna ...
architecture, Civil

architecture, Civil  

Civil architecture includes public buildings and private dwellings, but excludes military constructions and rural architecture. Important public buildings comprised essentially imperial and royal ...
Argentina

Argentina  

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History
Painful economic reforms have stimulated rapid economic growth, but economic and social stability remain elusiveTo the west, Argentina is bounded by the southernmost section of the Andes, but most of ...
Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St

Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St  

A monastic Rule which exists in three main forms, two for men and one for women; their relationship is disputed. As there is no reference to a rule in St Augustine's Retractationes, his authorship ...
Benedict XIII

Benedict XIII  

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Religion
(d. 1423), antipope at Avignon from 1394 to 1417. Pedro de Luna took part in the election of Urban VI, but later supported the antipope Clement VII. He succeeded him, largely because he promised to ...
Benito Jeronimo Feijoo

Benito Jeronimo Feijoo  

(1676–1764), Spanish theologian and essayist. Feijoo was probably the single most important figure in the early-eighteenth-century phase of the Enlightenment in Spain. The eldest son of a family of ...
Carlism

Carlism  

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History
A Spanish conservative political movement originating in support of Don Carlos, brother of Fernando VII (died 1833), who claimed the throne in place of Fernando's daughter Isabella. The movement ...
Carlo Denina

Carlo Denina  

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Literature
(1731–1813).Italy's foremost exponent of Enlightenment historiography. A Piedmontese, he published his Discorso sulle vicende d'ogni letteratura in 1760 in Turin, where in 1770 his Storia delle ...
Cassius Longinus, Quintus

Cassius Longinus, Quintus  

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(RE 70)probably cousin of the tyrannicide Cassius, was Pompey's rapacious quaestor in Further Spain c.52 bc. In 49, as one of the two tribunes who supported Caesar, he fled ...

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