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$

$  

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Dollar sign, denoting ‘all the signatures’; used in collational formulas with a figure indicating number of signed leaves per gathering in a book.
bibliographical description

bibliographical description  

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The description and analysis of the physical characteristics of books. It uses an agreed form of notation, intended to distinguish between issues and variants of an edition, to explain and ...
catchword

catchword  

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Catchwords have been used in manuscripts since early medieval times and were later adopted as useful devices also by printers, English printed books commonly bearing them from about 1500 to ...
chi

chi  

symbol: χ (lower case) or X (upper case); the twenty‐second letter of the Greek alphabet. For uses see Greek alphabet.
collating sheets

collating sheets  

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The first step in the binding process for a printed book; the sheets are gathered and checked by their signature sequence, to ensure completeness and correct order. See also gathering.[...]
collational formula

collational formula  

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A formulaic note of all the gatherings, individual leaves, and cancels as they appear in the ideal copy of a book, intended to show how the volume was constructed and ...
compositorial analysis

compositorial analysis  

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The painstaking comparison of spelling, punctuation, and spacing practices may reveal patterns, enabling scholars to distinguish the individual habits of those setting the type for a book. Such ...
dating

dating  

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It is possible approximately to date some undated MSS by the handwriting (to within a quarter of a century), by the style of illustration (see 16) or decoration (the latter ...
direction line

direction line  

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Line beneath the text at the foot of a page, containing the catchword and, where relevant, a signature and/or press figure.
fingerprint

fingerprint  

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Collective name for various means employed to catalogue hand-press books in order to identify variant issues or states as belonging to the same edition or, alternatively, to separate apparently ...
gathering

gathering  

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A gathering, or quire, in a manuscript or printed book is a discrete group of leaves, a series of which units sewn together makes up the volume. A gathering results ...
hand-stamped

hand-stamped  

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‘Hand-stamped’, or simply ‘stamped’, means that the mark, device, or text in question has been applied to the document not by writing, but by means of a stamp: i.e. by ...
impression

impression  

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An individual copy of a print, the quality of printing of which may give rise to the description of a ‘good’, ‘fine’, ‘poor’, etc. impression when the print comes to be catalogued or described.
literacy, Jewish

literacy, Jewish  

Rates of literacy among medieval Jews cannot be precisely determined, especially because of reliance on written sources. Surviving texts indicate not the percentage of literate people but the rate of ...
music publishing

music publishing  

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By the 1780s, numbers of music publishers and printers were competing in the growing market led by the middle-class demand for cheap music. Interest in music-making was spurred on by ...
pi

pi  

The sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet (Π, π), transliterated as ‘p’. Also, the numerical value of the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (approximately 3.14159).
proof copy

proof copy  

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A set of page proofs, bound together to form a book. Originally this was done in order to check the signatures and register in advance of publication. Although it was ...
quire

quire  

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Overview Page
A twentieth part of a ream of paper. Since ream sizes typically varied between 480 and 520 sheets, this normally indicates 25 sheets.
register

register  

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Overview Page
Sometimes applied to the series of signatures in a printed book, but more properly, the list of the signatures, usually preceding the colophon, included as an instruction to the binder. ...
rune

rune  

A letter of an ancient Germanic alphabet, related to the Roman alphabet; the original runic alphabet dates from at least the 2nd or 3rd century, and was formed by modifying the letters of the Roman ...

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