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Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky

Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky  

(1881–1970)Russian revolutionary. He was a representative of the moderate Labour Party in the Fourth Duma (1912) and joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party during the Russian Revolution. After the ...
Cdr Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze

Cdr Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze  

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(1885–1925),Soviet politician, military leader, and theorist; founder and ideologue of the Red Army, Soviet military doctrine, and Soviet preparations for total war. A student at St Petersburg ...
Cheka

Cheka  

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Soviet secret police. An acronym for the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Suppression of Counter-revolution and Sabotage, it was instituted by Lenin (1917) and run by Dzerzhinski, a Pole. ...
Chinese Revolution

Chinese Revolution  

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The overthrow of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Chinese republic. After half a century of anti-Manchu risings, the imperial government began a reform movement that gave limited ...
collectivization

collectivization  

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The creation of collective or communal farms. The policy was ruthlessly enforced in the Soviet Union by Stalin between 1929 and 1933 in an effort to overcome an acute grain shortage in the towns. The ...
communism

communism  

A theory of classless society with common ownership of property and wealth and centrally planned production and distribution based on the principle ‘from everyone according to their skills, to ...
Cossacks

Cossacks  

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A people in south Russia. They were descended from refugees from religious persecution in Poland and Muscovy, and from peasants fleeing the taxes and obligations of the feudal system. Settling in ...
Duma

Duma  

An elective legislative assembly introduced in Russia by Nicholas II in 1906 in response to popular unrest. Boycotted by the socialist parties, its efforts to introduce taxation and agrarian reforms ...
eastern front

eastern front  

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(1914–18).The German elite accepted war in 1914, in part because it feared the long-term build-up of Russian military strength. The pretext for escalating from a local war to a ...
Grigori Zinoviev

Grigori Zinoviev  

(b. 11 Sept. 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politician Born Radomyslsky Apfelbaum in Elizavetgrad, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1901 and supported the Bolshevik faction in 1903, ...
Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt  

(1906–1975)German-born US political philosopher, well known for her work on the nature of totalitarianism, violence, revolution, and other features of modern political life.Born in Hanover, she began ...
industrial Revolution

industrial Revolution  

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The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery.
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov

Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov  

(1881–1969)Soviet statesman and marshal. One of the oldest of the Bolsheviks, he became president (1953–60) after Stalin's death.Born in Verkhne, Dnepropetrovsk, the son of a miner, Voroshilov worked ...
Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan  

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A country in central Asia bounded by Kazakhstan on the north and north-west, Uzbekistan on the south-west, and Tajikistan on the south.Physical.On the south-east the Tian Shan range of mountains, ...
left

left  

In political terms, now indicative of the radical or progressive socialist spectrum, but originally literally a spatial term. In the French estates general of 1789, commoners sat on the left of the ...
Lenin

Lenin  

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(1870–1924)A Marxist theoretician and revolutionary, born in Russia, whose early life was characterized by a more or less orthodox Marxism. However, from the late 1890s he developed a distinctive ...
Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky  

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1879–1940)Russian revolutionary leader who, from the October Revolution to the death of Lenin, was the second most powerful man in the Soviet Union. He lost ground to Stalin after Lenin's death and ...
Louis Auguste Blanqui

Louis Auguste Blanqui  

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(1805–81)French radical thinker and revolutionary leader. He launched an attack on the Paris Hotel de Ville in 1839. Sentenced to death, his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment. A brief ...
Marshal Ivan Konev

Marshal Ivan Konev  

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(1897–1973),Soviet Army officer who acted as a military commissar during the civil war before becoming part of the officer corps in 1924.Konev, not entirely without reason, regarded Zhukov ...
Marshal Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevskiy

Marshal Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevskiy  

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(1893–1937),Russian and Soviet commander and military thinker. Born into down-at-heel Russian aristocracy, he graduated with the highest marks ever awarded from the Aleksandrovsk officer training ...

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