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Wars of the Roses

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battle of Barnet

battle of Barnet  

1471.*Warwick, Edward IV's great ally at Towton, turned against him in 1470 and drove him out of the kingdom. Returning in March 1471, Edward landed near Hull. Warwick, in possession of London, ...
battle of Blore Heath

battle of Blore Heath  

1459.*Warwick's father, the earl of Salisbury, supported the duke of York in 1459 when he rebelled against Henry VI. He marched from Yorkshire to join York, who was in Wales, near Ludlow. Royalist ...
battle of Mortimer's Cross

battle of Mortimer's Cross  

(2 February 1461)An important battle in the Wars of the Roses, which took place at a site near Wigmore in Herefordshire. The Yorkist forces led by Edward, Earl of March, won a major victory over the ...
battle of Northampton

battle of Northampton  

1460.The Yorkist leadership fled abroad after its ignominious flight from Ludford Bridge in 1459, but returned in the summer of 1460. On 10 July Warwick and the future Edward IV encountered Henry ...
battle of St Albans

battle of St Albans  

1461.The second battle of St Albans took place on 17 February 1461. Queen Margaret hastened south to exploit her crushing victory at Wakefield and rescue her husband Henry VI, held captive by ...
battle of Stoke

battle of Stoke  

1487.Lambert Simnel, posing as Edward, earl of Warwick, and nephew to Edward IV, raised support in Ireland and was crowned in Dublin as Edward VI. He landed near Lancaster and was supported by the ...
battle of Tewkesbury

battle of Tewkesbury  

1471.The last and one of the bloodiest battles of the Wars of the Roses. Queen Margaret, still defending the claims of her husband Henry VI, landed at Weymouth the same day that Edward IV defeated ...
battle of Towton

battle of Towton  

(29 March 1461)A desperate encounter near Tadcaster in Yorkshire in a snowstorm between the army of the newly crowned Edward IV and the retreating Lancastrian forces of Queen Margaret of Anjou and ...
battle of Wakefield

battle of Wakefield  

(30 December 1460)A battle in the Wars of the Roses fought in Yorkshire. The Lancastrians defeated and killed the Yorkist claimant to the throne, Richard, 3rd Duke of York.
Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville

Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville  

(1428–71),known as ‘the Kingmaker’. Warwick was the mightiest of overmighty subjects, who was instrumental in putting Edward IV on the throne in 1461, deposing him in 1470, and restoring Henry VI. ...
earls of Kildare

earls of Kildare  

A Fitzgerald family earldom begun in 1250 that reached its peak under Thomas Fitzgerald (d. 1478). Yorkist ties enabled him to reclaim lost territory and serve as both governor of ...
Edward IV

Edward IV  

(1442–83),king of England (1461–70, 1471–83). The tall and handsome ‘Rose of Rouen’, born in that city, the eldest son of Richard, duke of York, gained the throne of England in March 1461 when he was ...
Harlech castle

Harlech castle  

Was built for Edward I as one of a series of fortifications intended to secure his conquest of north Wales. Begun in May 1283, it was largely completed in seven years and is one of the greatest ...
Henry VI

Henry VI  

(1421–71),king of England (1422–61 and 1470–1). Henry VI was the youngest king of England ever to ascend the throne; the only one ever to be crowned king of France; and arguably the worst, who ...
Henry VII

Henry VII  

(1457–1509),king of England (1485–1509). Though the belief that Henry VII was a new kind of ruler at the head of a new kind of monarchy has long been abandoned, he was certainly an unusual ruler. ...
house of York

house of York  

15th‐cent.royal dynasty. Historians from the Tudor period onward viewed the Wars of the Roses as a dynastic contest between the houses of Lancaster and York. This interpretation appears in the papal ...
Margaret of Anjou

Margaret of Anjou  

Queen of England, b. 23 Mar. 1430, da. of René, duke of Anjou, and Isabella, da. of Charles, duke of Lorraine; m. Henry VI, 23 Apr. 1445; d. 25 Aug. 1482; bur. Angers.Disliked by many English as a ...
3rd duke of York, Richard Plantagenet

3rd duke of York, Richard Plantagenet  

(1411–60)The son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and Anne Mortimer. Until 1453 he was heir to the throne of England and led the opposition to Henry VI, especially after the death of Humphrey, Duke of ...
Richard III

Richard III  

(1452–85),king of England (1483–5). Richard is one of England's most controversial figures, immortalized as evil personified by Shakespeare, sanctified by a society dedicated to clearing his name. ...
treaty of Westminster

treaty of Westminster  

1462.Edward IV, hoping to recover some of the influence in Scotland lost by the Wars of the Roses, agreed in 1462 at Westminster with John Macdonald, lord of the Isles and earl of Ross, and James, ...

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