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Normandy campaign

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amphibious Ships and Landing Craft

amphibious Ships and Landing Craft  

Ships designed to carry, land, and support assault forces and capable of being loaded or unloaded in the objective area by Navy personnel without external assistance.
Anvil, Operation

Anvil, Operation  

Also known as Operation Dragoon (August 15– September 1944) the code name for the Allied landing on the French Riviera in World War II. It was originally intended to prevent ...
Army Rangers

Army Rangers  

Small groups of soldiers trained to make surprise raids behind enemy lines. Although units called “Rangers” were operating in the U.S. West as early as 1670, and the Rangers commanded ...
Arnhem

Arnhem  

A town in the eastern Netherlands, situated on the River Rhine. During the Second World War, in September 1944, Allied airborne troops made a landing nearby but were overwhelmed by German forces (see ...
Atlantic Wall

Atlantic Wall  

Name given by Adolf Hitler to the series of German-built fortifications stretching some 1,670 miles along the Atlantic coast of Europe from the Netherlands to Spain. The wall was a ...
Battle of Falaise Gap

Battle of Falaise Gap  

A fierce World War II battle (August 13–25, 1944) near Falaise and Argentan, in France, in which U.S., Canadian, and Polish forces attempted to cut off the escape route of ...
Battle of St. Lô

Battle of St. Lô  

An important battle following the D-Day Landing and leading up to the liberation of France, on July 25, 1944. Unable to make progress across the German lines, the Allies coordinated ...
Cairo Conference

Cairo Conference  

(22–26 November 1943)A World War II meeting, attended by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek, to decide on post-war policy for the Far East. Unconditional surrender by Japan was its ...
Fortitude, Operation

Fortitude, Operation  

The elaborate and highly successful deception plan that kept the German attention centered on Calais rather than Normandy, where, on June 5–6, 1944, the Allied forces launched Operation Overlord ...
French Riviera

French Riviera  

The section of France's southern coastline that borders the Mediterranean Sea. During World War II, it came under Axis control in 1940. In 1944, the Allies began planning to attack ...
Gold Beach

Gold Beach  

One of the five beaches targeted for the D-Day Landing at Normandy, and one of the two under British control. It is east of Omaha Beach, near Arromanches. See also Sword Beach.[...]
JUNO

JUNO  

Codename for assault beach in British sector on which the 3rd Canadian Division disembarked during the Normandy landings of 6 June 1944 (see OVERLORD). It lay between the River Provence ...
Lesley James McNair

Lesley James McNair  

(1883–1944) U.S. army officer. Born in Minnesota, McNair graduated from West Point in 1904 with a commission in the artillery. He took part in the occupation of Veracruz in 1914 ...
Liberation of France

Liberation of France  

(June–September 1944)one of the Allies' primary strategic goals in World War II. After the success of the D-Day Landing in Normandy, Allied generals sought to surround and defeat German ...
liberation of Paris

liberation of Paris  

A World War II Allied victory, on August 25, 1944. After Operation Overlord gained a foothold in Normandy, Allied forces made slow progress east. The German counterattack at Avranches, however ...
Lucius Clay

Lucius Clay  

(1897–1978), army general and diplomat.Born in Marietta, Georgia, Clay graduated from West Point in 1918 as a military engineer. His career departed from the routine with assignments to the ...
Maquis

Maquis  

(from Corsican Italian macchia, ‘thicket’)French resistance movement in World War II. After the fall of France in 1940, it carried on resistance to the Nazi occupation. Supported by the French ...
Matthew B. Ridgway

Matthew B. Ridgway  

(1895–1993), general, World War II and Korea; Supreme Commander, NATO; presidential adviser.Ridgway graduated from West Point in 1917 and rose through the ranks as an infantry officer. He served ...
Mulberry harbour

Mulberry harbour  

Code name for the prefabricated harbour used in the invasion of continental Europe by Allied forces in 1944.
Normandy campaign

Normandy campaign (1944)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,815 words
Illustration(s):
2

The western Allies had long agreed that continental Europe should be invaded as soon as practicable, and the Soviets vigorously

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