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neurotransmitter

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accommodation

accommodation  

The exhaustion of neurotransmitter at the synapse when a stimulus is repeated frequently. This may result in a decrease in behavioural responsiveness.
adenosine

adenosine  

A nucleoside comprising one adenine molecule linked to a d-ribose sugar molecule. The phosphate-ester derivatives of adenosine, AMP, ADP, and ATP, are of fundamental biological importance as carriers ...
adrenergic

adrenergic  

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1 Describing a cell, especially a neuron, or a cell receptor that is stimulated by adrenaline, noradrenaline, or related substances. See also adrenoceptor.2 Describing a nerve fibre or neuron that ...
agonist

agonist  

1 A person or animal engaged in a struggle. Compare antagonist (1).2 A muscle that contracts in the same direction as another. Compare antagonist (2).3 A substance that binds to neuroreceptors and ...
amine

amine  

Any one of a group of organic compounds derived by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia by organic groups. Primary amines have one hydrogen replaced, e.g. methylamine, CH3NH2. They ...
aspartic acid

aspartic acid  

A non-essential amino acid that is a component molecule of proteins and that functions as a neurotransmitter. Also called aspartate. See also aspartame. Asp abbrev. [From aspar(agus), in which it is ...
autoreceptor

autoreceptor  

A neuroreceptor for a neurotransmitter located on the neuron that secretes it, such as one of the receptors that are located in the membranes of presynaptic cells and that monitor the amount of ...
axonal transport

axonal transport  

The movement of chemical substances such as neurotransmitters and sometimes small objects such as organelles along the axon of a neuron, either away from the cell body (anterograde axonal transport) ...
Bernard Katz

Bernard Katz  

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(1911–2003) German–British neurophysiologistBorn at Leipzig in Germany, Katz received his MD from the university there in 1934 and his PhD, under Archibald Hill, from the University of London in ...
carbon monoxide

carbon monoxide  

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A colourless almost odourless gas that is very poisonous. When breathed in it combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form carboxyhaemoglobin, which is bright red in colour. This compound ...
chemical transmitter

chemical transmitter  

(sometimes) an alternative term for neurotransmitter.
chemically gated ion channel

chemically gated ion channel  

An ion channel, the permeability of which is regulated by a neurotransmitter; different neurotransmitters sometimes opening and closing different ion channels in the cell membrane. Compare ...
cholinergic

cholinergic  

Describing a nerve fibre that either releases acetylcholine when stimulated or is itself stimulated by acetylcholine. Compare adrenergic.
classification of psychiatric disorders

classification of psychiatric disorders  

Historical aspectsAdvances in classification have made important contributions to the progress of physical, biological, and even the human sciences. Kepler, Tycho Brahe, and Galileo laid the ...
cotransmitter

cotransmitter  

A substance that is released from a nerve ending along with a primary neurotransmitter in order to modify the action of the latter. For example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (see VIP) functions as a ...
cyclic AMP

cyclic AMP  

A derivative of ATP that is widespread in cells as a second messenger in many biochemical reactions induced by hormones. Binding of the hormone to its receptor on the cell surface activates G ...
Dale's law

Dale's law  

The principle according to which a neuron can release only one neurotransmitter substance from its synaptic endings. This law has been repealed in the light of research findings. [Named after the ...
dopaminergic

dopaminergic  

Releasing dopamine; also activated by or responding to dopamine, this extended usage being widespread but consistently rejected by the English physiologist Sir Henry Hallet Dale (1875–1968), who ...
endorphin

endorphin  

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(en-dor-fin)one of a group of peptides that occur naturally in the brain and have pain-relieving properties similar to those of the opiates. See also encephalin.
enkephalin

enkephalin  

Pentapeptides with opiate-like activity (compare with endorphins), first isolated in 1975 from pig brain. Met-enkephalin has the amino acid sequence Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met; Leu-enkephalin has the ...

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