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neurotransmitter

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acetylcholine

acetylcholine  

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(ass-i-tyl-koh-leen)the acetic acid ester of the organic base choline: the neurotransmitter released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions. See also cholinesterase.
adrenaline

adrenaline  

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A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland, and by adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline induces the ‘fight or flight’ responses: increased heart function, an ...
agonist

agonist  

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n. 1. (prime mover) a muscle whose active contraction causes movement of a part of the body. Contraction of an agonist is associated with relaxation of its antagonist. 2. a drug or other substance ...
amitriptyline

amitriptyline  

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n. a tricyclic antidepressant drug that has a mild tranquillizing action. Side-effects can include abnormal heart rhythms, which may be fatal following overdosage, and the drug is now rarely used for ...
anaesthetic mechanisms

anaesthetic mechanisms  

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General anaesthetics are among the most useful, the most dangerous, the least specific, and the least understood of the major drugs. They are useful because they allow surgery without sensation ...
anorexia nervosa

anorexia nervosa  

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A psychiatric illness in which the patients starve themselves or use other techniques, such as vomiting or taking laxatives, to induce weight loss. To fulfil ICD-10 criteria for anorexia nervosa a ...
autonomic nervous system

autonomic nervous system  

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That part of the nervous system that controls and regulates involuntary body functions (e.g. digestion, heart rate, and temperature regulation). It is divided up into the sympathetic and ...
axon

axon  

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(aks-on)a nerve fibre: a single process extending from the cell body of a neurone and carrying nerve impulses away from it.
biogenic amine

biogenic amine  

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Any amine that is produced by living organisms, especially the physiologically active amines that serve as neurotransmitters in animals. These include adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline ...
catecholamine

catecholamine  

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(kat-ĕ-kol-ă-meenz)a group of physiologically important substances, including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine, with different roles (mainly as neurotransmitters) in the functioning of the ...
cholecystokinin

cholecystokinin  

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n. a hormone secreted by the cells of the duodenum in response to the presence of partly digested food in the duodenum. It causes contraction of the gall bladder and expulsion of bile into the ...
development and growth: early childhood

development and growth: early childhood  

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The transformation that occurs in the first five years of life is extraordinary. William Blake speaks of the baby at the time of birth:My mother groan'd: My father weptInto the ...
dopamine

dopamine  

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A catecholamine that is a precursor in the synthesis of noradrenaline and adrenaline. It also functions as a neurotransmitter, especially in the brain.
end plate

end plate  

n. the area of muscle cell membrane immediately beneath the motor nerve ending at a neuromuscular junction. Special receptors in this area trigger muscular contraction when the nerve ending releases ...
epilepsy

epilepsy  

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A disorder of cerebral function accompanied by recurrent seizures and sometimes loss of consciousness. The severity varies (grand mal, Jacksonian epilepsy, MERRF syndrome, myoclonic epilepsy of ...
glia

glia  

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(neuroglia) n. the special connective tissue of the central nervous system, composed of different cells, including the oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells (see ependyma), and microglia, ...
glutamate

glutamate  

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A salt of glutamic acid, the main excitatory neurotransmitter for all nerve impulses in the diencephalon and telencephalon and for sensory impulses in the peripheral nervous system. See also kainic ...
glycine

glycine  

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A sweet-tasting amino acid that, besides being a component of proteins, is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter for fast synapses in the spinal cord of vertebrates. Glycine is also required for ...
histamine

histamine  

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n. a compound derived from the amino acid histidine. It is found in nearly all tissues of the body, associated mainly with the mast cells. Histamine has pronounced pharmacological activity, causing ...
magnetic brain stimulation

magnetic brain stimulation  

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Refers to a technique for electrical stimulation of part of the brain, through the intact skull, by the principle of electromagnetic induction.The fact that the brain can be excited ...

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