Overview

neurotransmitter

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accommodation

accommodation  

The exhaustion of neurotransmitter at the synapse when a stimulus is repeated frequently. This may result in a decrease in behavioural responsiveness.
acetylcholine

acetylcholine  

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(ass-i-tyl-koh-leen)the acetic acid ester of the organic base choline: the neurotransmitter released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions. See also cholinesterase.
adenosine

adenosine  

A nucleoside comprising one adenine molecule linked to a d-ribose sugar molecule. The phosphate-ester derivatives of adenosine, AMP, ADP, and ATP, are of fundamental biological importance as carriers ...
adrenaline

adrenaline  

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A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland, and by adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline induces the ‘fight or flight’ responses: increased heart function, an ...
adrenergic

adrenergic  

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1 Describing a cell, especially a neuron, or a cell receptor that is stimulated by adrenaline, noradrenaline, or related substances. See also adrenoceptor.2 Describing a nerve fibre or neuron that ...
agonist

agonist  

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n. 1. (prime mover) a muscle whose active contraction causes movement of a part of the body. Contraction of an agonist is associated with relaxation of its antagonist. 2. a drug or other substance ...
agonist

agonist  

1 A person or animal engaged in a struggle. Compare antagonist (1).2 A muscle that contracts in the same direction as another. Compare antagonist (2).3 A substance that binds to neuroreceptors and ...
amine

amine  

Any one of a group of organic compounds derived by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia by organic groups. Primary amines have one hydrogen replaced, e.g. methylamine, CH3NH2. They ...
amitriptyline

amitriptyline  

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n. a tricyclic antidepressant drug that has a mild tranquillizing action. Side-effects can include abnormal heart rhythms, which may be fatal following overdosage, and the drug is now rarely used for ...
anaesthetic mechanisms

anaesthetic mechanisms  

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General anaesthetics are among the most useful, the most dangerous, the least specific, and the least understood of the major drugs. They are useful because they allow surgery without sensation ...
anorexia nervosa

anorexia nervosa  

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A psychiatric illness in which the patients starve themselves or use other techniques, such as vomiting or taking laxatives, to induce weight loss. To fulfil ICD-10 criteria for anorexia nervosa a ...
aspartic acid

aspartic acid  

A non-essential amino acid that is a component molecule of proteins and that functions as a neurotransmitter. Also called aspartate. See also aspartame. Asp abbrev. [From aspar(agus), in which it is ...
autonomic nervous system

autonomic nervous system  

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That part of the nervous system that controls and regulates involuntary body functions (e.g. digestion, heart rate, and temperature regulation). It is divided up into the sympathetic and ...
autoreceptor

autoreceptor  

A neuroreceptor for a neurotransmitter located on the neuron that secretes it, such as one of the receptors that are located in the membranes of presynaptic cells and that monitor the amount of ...
axon

axon  

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(aks-on)a nerve fibre: a single process extending from the cell body of a neurone and carrying nerve impulses away from it.
axonal transport

axonal transport  

The movement of chemical substances such as neurotransmitters and sometimes small objects such as organelles along the axon of a neuron, either away from the cell body (anterograde axonal transport) ...
Bernard Katz

Bernard Katz  

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(1911–2003) German–British neurophysiologistBorn at Leipzig in Germany, Katz received his MD from the university there in 1934 and his PhD, under Archibald Hill, from the University of London in ...
biogenic amine

biogenic amine  

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Any amine that is produced by living organisms, especially the physiologically active amines that serve as neurotransmitters in animals. These include adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline ...
carbon monoxide

carbon monoxide  

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A colourless almost odourless gas that is very poisonous. When breathed in it combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form carboxyhaemoglobin, which is bright red in colour. This compound ...
catecholamine

catecholamine  

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(kat-ĕ-kol-ă-meenz)a group of physiologically important substances, including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine, with different roles (mainly as neurotransmitters) in the functioning of the ...

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