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Achmad Sukarno

Achmad Sukarno  

(b. 6 June 1901, d. 21 June 1970).President of Indonesia 1949–68 Born in Surabaya, Sukarno studied engineering in Bandung, where he became involved in the foundation of the Partai Nasionalis ...
Afrikaner

Afrikaner  

A term originally used to describe a person born in South Africa rather than Europe; in the twentieth century it was used to denote a White person whose first language was Afrikaans. Afrikaners ...
Balthazar Johannes Vorster

Balthazar Johannes Vorster  

(b. 13 Dec. 1915, d. 10 Sept. 1983).Prime Minister of South Africa 1966–78; President 1978–9Early careerBorn in Jamestown, he studied at Stellenbosch, where he attended Verwoerd's lectures on ...
Daniel François Malan

Daniel François Malan  

(1874–1959)South African prime minister (1948–54). A right-wing Afrikaner nationalist, Malan introduced the policy of apartheid into South Africa, incurring great displeasure among western ...
Falange

Falange  

A Spanish political party, the Falange Española. Founded in 1933 by José António Primo de Rivera, the son of General Primo de Rivera, its members were equally opposed to the reactionary Right and the ...
Fascist movement, Italy

Fascist movement, Italy  

In 1919, Mussolini founded the Fasci di Combattimento, a movement which combined militant nationalism with vociferous demands for political and social renewal. In particular, it demanded progressive ...
Franjo Tudjman

Franjo Tudjman  

(b. 14 May 1922, d. 10 Dec 1999).Croatian President 1990–99 Born at Veliko Trgovisce, he became a conscript soldier in the army of the Fascist Independent State of Croatia in 1941. He escaped and ...
Government of India Acts

Government of India Acts  

(1919, 1935)Two British Acts of Parliament which determined the structure of government in India. They were created with the aim of appeasing Indian nationalism and preventing India's eventual ...
Ho Chi Minh

Ho Chi Minh  

(b. 19 May 1890, d. 3 Sept. 1969).President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam 1945–69Rise to powerBorn Nguyen Tat Thanh as the son of a local scholar in Kim Lienh (central Annam), he was educated ...
Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi  

(1917–1984)Indian prime minister (1966–77; 1980–84). Regarded as the strong-willed matriarch of India, Mrs Gandhi dominated her country's affairs both nationally and internationally for nearly ...
Iron Guard

Iron Guard  

A Romanian Fascist movement. Its name was used from 1930 for the Fascist League of the Archangel Michael, founded in 1927 by Cornelieu Zelca Codreanu. With its traits of mysticism, nationalism, ...
James Barry Munnik Hertzog

James Barry Munnik Hertzog  

(1886–1942)South African statesman and prime minister (1924–39). A firm supporter of the Dutch language and culture, Hertzog consistently opposed British influence in South Africa.Born in Wellington, ...
Jan Christiaan Smuts

Jan Christiaan Smuts  

(1870–1950)South African statesman and soldier, Prime Minister (1919–24; 1939–48). He led Boer forces during the Second Boer War, but afterwards supported Louis Botha's policy of Anglo-Boer ...
Kurdistan

Kurdistan  

OverviewA state for the Kurdish nation which has not yet been established. The Kurds inhabit the border region of Turkey (around eleven million people, or 20 per cent of the population), Iran (around ...
Liberal Party

Liberal Party  

(Canada) A major political party in Canada. Following the Confederation of Canada in 1867, a Liberal Party took shape as a major political force and remained so, forming a government (1873–78) under ...
Mahdism

Mahdism  

A religious and political movement inspired by Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi (b. 1848, d. 1885), a man of great religious zeal and personal asceticism. In 1881, he proclaimed his divine mission to free ...
Nicolae Ceauşescu

Nicolae Ceauşescu  

(b. 26 Jan. 1918, d. 25 Dec. 1989).President of Romania 1967–89Early careerBorn in Scornicesti in rural Romania, he moved to Bucharest and soon became politically active, joining the Communist Party ...
Pierre Trudeau

Pierre Trudeau  

(1919–2000)Canadian Liberal statesman, Prime Minister of Canada (1968–79; 1980–84). A committed federalist, Trudeau made both English and French official languages of the Canadian government (1969). ...
Round Table Conferences

Round Table Conferences  

The meetings held in London (1930–32) between Britain and Indian representatives to discuss Indian constitutional developments. The procedure was suggested by the viceroy, Lord Irwin, in 1929. ...
Sudetenland

Sudetenland  

An area in the north-west part of the Czech Republic, on the border with Germany. Allocated to Czechoslovakia after the First World War, it became an object of Nazi expansionist policies and was ...

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