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Achmad Sukarno

Achmad Sukarno  

(b. 6 June 1901, d. 21 June 1970).President of Indonesia 1949–68 Born in Surabaya, Sukarno studied engineering in Bandung, where he became involved in the foundation of the Partai Nasionalis ...
Afrikaner

Afrikaner  

A term originally used to describe a person born in South Africa rather than Europe; in the twentieth century it was used to denote a White person whose first language was Afrikaans. Afrikaners ...
age of Equipoise

age of Equipoise  

This term is used to signify a generation of political and social calm in mid‐Victorian Britain. In his book The Age of Equipoise (1964), W. L. Burns identified the period ...
Alec Douglas-Home, Lord Home

Alec Douglas-Home, Lord Home  

(1903–95).Prime minister. Douglas‐Home succeeded to the earldom in 1951 but relinquished it in 1963 to re‐enter the Commons as prime minister, in succession to Harold Macmillan. In 1974 he returned ...
Balthazar Johannes Vorster

Balthazar Johannes Vorster  

(b. 13 Dec. 1915, d. 10 Sept. 1983).Prime Minister of South Africa 1966–78; President 1978–9Early careerBorn in Jamestown, he studied at Stellenbosch, where he attended Verwoerd's lectures on ...
Basque

Basque  

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History
A member of an ethnic group inhabiting the western Pyrenees on both sides of the French-Spanish border; this region in known as the Basque Country. The Basques possess a distinctive culture and ...
Biological Sciences.

Biological Sciences.  

The biological sciences encompass a wide range of objects and problems—from cells to whales, from eating to evolution. The degree to which these studies have been perceived as a cohesive ...
Boxer Rebellion

Boxer Rebellion  

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History
A Chinese nationalist uprising, in protest against the growing foreign encroachment into Chinese sovereignty. It took place against the background of foreign acquisition of bases on Chinese soil ...
Catholic Church

Catholic Church  

Is the denomination of Western Christianity in communion with the Pope that traces its faith in Jesus Christ to the community formed around the apostles. Since the European Reformation of ...
central Europe

central Europe  

Cannot be sharply delimited on a map. Although it is situated on the east-west axis of the continent—the adjective “central” here signifies an in-between (as in Central America) rather than ...
Charitable Bequests Act

Charitable Bequests Act  

(1844).Like the increased Maynooth Grant, this was part of the programme of reforms by which Peel's government hoped to detach moderate Catholics from repeal. It sought to facilitate legacies ...
Chinese Revolution

Chinese Revolution  

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History
The overthrow of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Chinese republic. After half a century of anti-Manchu risings, the imperial government began a reform movement that gave limited ...
Comintern

Comintern  

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(Communist International)Organization of national communist parties for the propagation of communist doctrine with the aim of bringing about a world revolution. It was established by Lenin (1919) in ...
consequences of the war

consequences of the war  

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The Second World War ended in both major theatres in acts of total and undeniable capitulation. Victors and vanquished were plain for all to see. The chief aggressors, Germany and ...
Daniel François Malan

Daniel François Malan  

(1874–1959)South African prime minister (1948–54). A right-wing Afrikaner nationalist, Malan introduced the policy of apartheid into South Africa, incurring great displeasure among western ...
Daniel Mannix

Daniel Mannix  

(1864–1963),Catholic ecclesiastic. Born in Co. Cork, he taught at Maynooth and became president there in 1903, before being appointed coadjutor archbishop of Melbourne in 1912 and archbishop in 1917. ...
Estonia

Estonia  

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History
The wealthiest of the Baltic states, Estonia has enjoyed a close cultural and linguistic relationship with Finland.Early historyColonized by the Teutonic Order of Knights from 1346, Estonia became ...
Ethnic history

Ethnic history  

Derived from studies of immigrant groups in the University of Chicago in the 1920s. Such ethnic studies had little relevance outside North America until the arrival of large numbers of ...
Falange

Falange  

A Spanish political party, the Falange Española. Founded in 1933 by José António Primo de Rivera, the son of General Primo de Rivera, its members were equally opposed to the reactionary Right and the ...
fascism

fascism  

An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.The term Fascism was first used of the totalitarian right-wing nationalist regime of Mussolini in Italy ...

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