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1848

1848  

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Overview Page
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Literature
The most celebrated and widespread of the 19th-c. European revolutions proved also a crucial turning point in the Italian Risorgimento. Beginning with an insurrection in Palermo in January, ...
Achmad Sukarno

Achmad Sukarno  

(b. 6 June 1901, d. 21 June 1970).President of Indonesia 1949–68 Born in Surabaya, Sukarno studied engineering in Bandung, where he became involved in the foundation of the Partai Nasionalis ...
Action Française

Action Française  

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Religion
A French political movement, founded in 1898 at the height of the Dreyfus affair. In 1926 it was condemned by Pius XI on the grounds of extreme nationalism and a cynical misappropriation of Catholic ...
Afredo Oriani

Afredo Oriani  

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Literature
(1852–1909).Novelist and essayist. Born in Faenza, he was educated in Bologna, where after further studies in Rome and Naples he worked briefly in the legal profession before withdrawing to ...
Afrikaner

Afrikaner  

A term originally used to describe a person born in South Africa rather than Europe; in the twentieth century it was used to denote a White person whose first language was Afrikaans. Afrikaners ...
age of Equipoise

age of Equipoise  

This term is used to signify a generation of political and social calm in mid‐Victorian Britain. In his book The Age of Equipoise (1964), W. L. Burns identified the period ...
Alec Douglas-Home, Lord Home

Alec Douglas-Home, Lord Home  

(1903–95).Prime minister. Douglas‐Home succeeded to the earldom in 1951 but relinquished it in 1963 to re‐enter the Commons as prime minister, in succession to Harold Macmillan. In 1974 he returned ...
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance

American Popular Revolutionary Alliance  

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The Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA) was the brainchild and political vehicle of the Peruvian leader Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (1895–1979). Created both as a national political ...
Anthologies of poetry

Anthologies of poetry  

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Literature
Begin with the regional collections, W. P. Reeves and J. Ward's The Book of Canterbury Rhymes (1866; 1883) and O. T. J. Alpers's The Jubilee Book of Canterbury Rhymes (1900). ...
Antonio Beltramelli

Antonio Beltramelli  

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Literature
(1879–1930).Writer and journalist. His first novel, Gli uomini rossi (1904), is a Romeo and Juliet tale of conflict in his native Romagna between Catholics and republicans (rossi); in the ...
Antonio Fogazzaro

Antonio Fogazzaro  

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Literature
(1842–1911)Italian novelist and essayist. His humour and powers of characterization are at their best in Piccolo mondo antico (1895: The Little World of the Past), set north of Lake ...
Arab Nationalism

Arab Nationalism  

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Religion
Defined by an anticolonial ethos and the glorification of origins and history in the face of Western dominance experienced by Arab countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Aims at ...
Asia–Australia (history)

Asia–Australia (history)  

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European Australians focused on their Asia–Pacific context from the time of first settlement, but the framework within which they dealt with the region changed substantially from one era to another ...
Australian English

Australian English  

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Literature
Is a term used to describe the form of English spoken and written in Australia. Like other national varieties of English, it shares much of its vocabulary and pronunciation with ...
Australian Natives Association

Australian Natives Association  

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Literature
Was a benefit society formed in Melbourne in 1871, with membership restricted to men born in Australia. It depicted itself as a national organisation since it ignored old-world ethnic divisions ...
authoritarianism

authoritarianism  

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A style of government in which the rulers demand unquestioning obedience from the ruled. Traditionally, ‘authoritarians’ have argued for a high degree of determination by governments of belief and ...
Ba'athism

Ba'athism  

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Refers to the political philosophy of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (hizb al‐ba'ath al‐arabi al‐ishtiraki). This party is the result of the 1952 merger of two parties—the Arab Ba'ath Party founded ...
Balthazar Johannes Vorster

Balthazar Johannes Vorster  

(b. 13 Dec. 1915, d. 10 Sept. 1983).Prime Minister of South Africa 1966–78; President 1978–9Early careerBorn in Jamestown, he studied at Stellenbosch, where he attended Verwoerd's lectures on ...
‘Banjo’ Paterson

‘Banjo’ Paterson  

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Literature
(1864–1941),Australian writer, born on a bush station in New South Wales; he trained as a solicitor. The author of ‘Waltzing Matilda’, he grew up in the bush and had ...
Basque

Basque  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
A member of an ethnic group inhabiting the western Pyrenees on both sides of the French-Spanish border; this region in known as the Basque Country. The Basques possess a distinctive culture and ...

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