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Muhammad

(c. 570—632)

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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
al- Abbas

al- Abbas  

(c.567–c.653)*Muhammad’s uncle; a merchant who accepted Islam and joined in the conquest of Mecca (630). The Abbasid caliphal dynasty, which took its name from him, claimed descent from his son Abd ...
Ali

Ali  

(c.599–661)Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; fourth caliph (656–61); first Shiite imam; an early Quran scribe. Hasan and Husayn, his sons with Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, are the second and third ...
annals and chronicles: Spain/Portugal—Crónica de 754

annals and chronicles: Spain/Portugal—Crónica de 754  

Traditionally known as the Mozarabic Chronicle, the anonymous Latin Chronicle of 754 is the most important single source of information in any language about the Muslim conquest of Spain and ...
Arabic papyri

Arabic papyri  

Employed from at least 2000 bc in Egypt, its land of origin, the papyrus was used by the Arabs following their conquest of that country in 640. Its Islamic utilization ...
architect

architect  

In the fifteenth century, anyone who was concerned with erecting a building, even by supervising financial arrangements, could be called an architect. The specialized profession of architect, in ...
armies, Islamic

armies, Islamic  

Pre-Islamic Arabia, with the exception of Yemen, had no known standing armies. The first Islamic army was prepared and led by Muhammad under the new religious obligation of jihad. However ...
art and architecture: Arabic

art and architecture: Arabic  

With the spread of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula westward across North Africa and into Spain in the century following the death of the prophet Muhammad in 630, new forms ...
Caliphate of Córdoba

Caliphate of Córdoba  

Umayyad and Ḥammūdid DynastiesLévi-Provençal, E., Histoire de l'Espagne musulmane (3 vols., Paris, 1950–67).Scales, P. C., The Fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba (Leiden, 1994).756–788‛Abd al-Raḥmān I ...
camel

camel  

The camel can survive for long periods without food or drink, chiefly by using up the fat reserves in its hump; from this comes the name ship of the desert.Camels are the emblem of the 4th-century ...
Córdoba

Córdoba  

A city in Andalusia, southern Spain. Founded by the Carthaginians, it was under Moorish rule from 711 to 1236, and as capital of the most powerful of the Arab states in Spain, it was a centre of ...
Córdoba martyrs

Córdoba martyrs  

A brief enthusiasm for voluntary martyrdom flourished in 9th-century Córdoba in response to the spread of Arab language and culture among Christians. The Córdoban priest Eulogius (d. 859) describes ...
Fatimid

Fatimid  

A descendant or Arabian dynasty claiming descent from Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. The Fatimids ruled in parts of North Africa from 908 to 1171, and during some of that period in ...
Fiqh

Fiqh  

Conceptually, the human attempt to understand divine law (shariah). Whereas shariah is immutable and infallible, fiqh is fallible and changeable. Fiqh is distinguished from usul al-fiqh, the methods ...
Hejira

Hejira  

The hejira designates the beginning of the Muslim era and corresponds with the year 622 of the Christian calendar. The Latinized form hejira or hegira is derived from the Arabic ...
Islam, Polemic Against

Islam, Polemic Against  

Attacks on Islam were written by both Christians living within the caliphate and those in Byz. territory. The polemic produced in Arab-controlled lands was predominantly apologetic and decreased ...
Islamic civilization

Islamic civilization  

The civilization of the Islamic world during the MA was both diverse and flexible. Its diversity is best explained by the size of the Islamic world, which at its greatest ...
Islamic empire

Islamic empire  

During the MA several Islamic dynasties established empires. Major empires included those of the Umayyads, Abbasids, Seljuks, Ayyubids, Almoravids, Mongols, and Mamluks, although other dynasties had ...
Jundishapur

Jundishapur  

A town in southeastern Iran, traditionally regarded as the central point in the transfer of Graeco-Roman medical ideas and institutions to the Islamic world. Its famous students allegedly included ...
Khālid

Khālid  

(Ξάλεδος), more fully Khālid ibn al-Walīd; a prominent early Muslim commander and conqueror of Byz. Syria who was known as “the Sword of God.” An early opponent of Muḥammad, Khālid ...

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