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Alessandro Piccolomini

Alessandro Piccolomini  

(1508–78),Italian humanist, poet, and dramatist. He was born in Siena and became a teacher of philosophy in Padua (from 1539) and Rome (1546–58). In 1574 he was appointed archbishop ...
Andrea Alciato

Andrea Alciato  

(1492–1550),Italian jurist and humanist, born in Milan and from 1518 professor of law at Avignon. In 1529 he moved to Bourges, and his four years there shifted the centre ...
Andrea Navagero

Andrea Navagero  

(1483–1529)was a Venetian humanist, poet, historian, and diplomat. He succeeded Marcantonio Sabellico as historian of the Venetian Republic and was involved in important diplomatic missions. His ...
Benedetto Dei

Benedetto Dei  

(1418–92),Italian traveller and historian, born in Florence on 4 March 1418. He fled the city after participating in an abortive coup, and travelled for many years in Africa and ...
Bernardo Rucellai

Bernardo Rucellai  

(1448–1514),Historian and garden designer, the son of Giovanni Rucellai. He was a confidant and supporter of Lorenzo de' Medici, and the author of De bello Italico, an account of ...
Bernardo Segni

Bernardo Segni  

(1504–58),Florentine humanist and historian who held a series of public offices culminating in a period as the ambassador of Cosimo I de' Medici to the imperial court (1541). He ...
Carlo Marsuppini

Carlo Marsuppini  

(1399–1453),Italian humanist and Hellenist, born in Arezzo and educated in Florence, where he enjoyed the patronage of the Medici family. He had an excellent command of Greek, and in ...
Catholic Reformation

Catholic Reformation  

The program of the reformatio Ecclesiae had been officially placed on the agenda of Christian society from the time of the Great Schism (1309–1417). The Council of Constance opened on ...
Claudio Tolomei

Claudio Tolomei  

(1492–1555),Italian poet, born in Siena, from which he was banished in 1526 because of his support for the Medici family. Thereafter he lived in Rome, Piacenza, and Siena (of ...
Donato Giannotti

Donato Giannotti  

(1492–1573),Florentine political philosopher and playwright. He studied law at Pisa and served the Florentine republic of 1527–30 as a chancery secretary; he was banished for life when the Medici ...
Ermolao Barbaro

Ermolao Barbaro  

(c.1454–93) Venetian humanist and diplomat.He gained fame as a classical scholar for his textual criticism of Pliny the Elder and for his Latin translations of Greek philosophical texts. A ...
Étienne Dolet

Étienne Dolet  

(1509–46),French printer and humanist scholar. He was born in Orléans and briefly studied law in Toulouse; as a young man he worked in Venice as secretary to the French ...
Federico da Montefeltro

Federico da Montefeltro  

 (1422–82)Duke of Urbino and mercenary captain. He spent his considerable wealth on transforming Urbino’s architecture and amassing a magnificent picture collection and library. According to his main ...
Francesco Filelfo

Francesco Filelfo  

(1398–1481)The Italian Humanist Francesco Filelfo played an important role in the preservation and promotion of Greek culture in Italy. Living at Constantinople from 1420 to 1427, he learned Greek ...
François Vatable

François Vatable  

(c.1495–1547),French classical scholar and pioneer of Hebrew scholarship in France. Vatable was born in Picardy, and in about 1530 was appointed to one of the two founding chairs of ...
Gasparino Barzizza

Gasparino Barzizza  

(c.1360–1431),Italian humanist, educated in Pavia, where he later taught grammar and rhetoric. In 1407 Gasparino moved to Padua, where he established an institute for the study of classical Latin. ...
German drama

German drama  

In Germany as elsewhere in Europe, drama evolved out of the liturgy of the Church, the public entertainments of the festivals, and the recovery by humanists of the plays of classical antiquity.[...]
Gianozzo Manetti

Gianozzo Manetti  

(1396–1459),Italian humanist. He was born into a prominent banking family in Florence, where he entered the political life of the republic. In 1453 Manetti resigned his civic posts and ...
Giovanni Aurispa

Giovanni Aurispa  

(1376–1459),Sicilian humanist, Hellenist, and collector of manuscripts. Aurispa studied in Naples before undertaking two protracted visits to the Byzantine East (1405–13, 1421–3). On his first visit ...
Guarino da Verona

Guarino da Verona  

(1374–1460),Educator and Hellenist. Guarino was the orphaned child of an artisan family in Verona, but he secured a good education in Padua and Venice; from 1403 to 1408 he ...

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