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Augustus I

Augustus I  

(1526–86),Elector of Saxony, was born in Freiberg on 31 July 1526, the younger son of Heinrich, duke of Saxony, a member of the Albertine branch of the Wettin family. ...
Calvinism

Calvinism  

The Protestant theological system of the French Protestant theologian and reformer John Calvin (1509–64) and his successors, which develops Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone into an ...
Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de' Medici  

(1519–89)Queen of France. The wife of Henry II of France, Catherine ruled as regent (1560–74) during the minority reigns of their three sons, Francis II (reigned 1559–60), Charles IX (reigned ...
Catholic League

Catholic League  

(1576–95),A political and military force representing the Catholic party in France during the central years of the Wars of Religion; individual members of the League were known as Ligueurs. ...
Charles de Guise

Charles de Guise  

(1525–74),French cardinal, the younger brother of François de Lorraine, second duke of Guise. He was destined for a career in the Church, to which end he was appointed archbishop ...
Charles IX

Charles IX  

(1550–74),King of France, was the second son of King Henri II and Catherine de Médicis; before his accession he was known as duke of Orléans. In 1560, aged 10 ...
Claudio Aquaviva

Claudio Aquaviva  

(1543–1615), fifth General of the Jesuits from 1581. Under his leadership the Society was consolidated both in respect of its internal structures and its characteristic approach to ministry. Its ...
Colloquy of Poissy

Colloquy of Poissy  

(September–October 1561),A conference between Catholic churchmen (led by Cardinal Tournon and including Diego Laínez, general of the Jesuits) and Protestant theologians (led by Theodore Beza and ...
Count of Nassau Louis

Count of Nassau Louis  

(1538–74),Dutch leader in the Revolt of the Netherlands, the son of William of Nassau and the younger brother of William of Orange. He was raised in the Lutheran faith ...
Duc de Sully Maximilien de Béthune

Duc de Sully Maximilien de Béthune  

(1560–1641), duke of Sully, early companion of Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV of France), and chief minister in France between about 1598 and 1610.Béthune was born near Mantes-la-Jolie ...
Edict of Châteaubriant

Edict of Châteaubriant  

(27 June 1551), a decree signed by King Henri II of France restricting the growth of Protestantism in France. The Edict codified earlier decrees, and strengthened the strictures with respect to the ...
Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes  

(13 April 1598), an edict signed at Nantes by King Henri IV, who granted the Huguenots (his former co-religionists) extensive rights and confirmed earlier edicts of 1564 and 1570. Under ...
Francis I

Francis I  

(1494–1547)King of France (1515–47). He was in many respects an archetypal Renaissance prince, able, quick-witted, and licentious, and a patron of art and learning, but he developed into a cruel ...
François Anjou, duc d'

François Anjou, duc d'  

(1554–84), the fourth son of King Henri II of France and Catherine de Médicis. He was known as the duke of Alençon until 6 May 1576, when his brother King ...
François Béroalde de verville

François Béroalde de verville  

(1556–1626),French author, born in Paris, the son of the Huguenot Hebrew scholar Matthieu Brouard; he studied in Geneva, where his father joined him in 1574. After the latter's death ...
François le Clerc

François le Clerc  

(d. 1563),French Huguenot privateer whose nickname (‘wooden leg’) derived from the artificial limb that he wore after losing a leg in a sea battle. He was employed by King ...
Frederick III

Frederick III  

(1515–76), Elector Palatine of the Rhine from 1559, surnamed ‘the Pious’. Through his wife he became well-disposed towards the Reformation, though she was more inclined to Lutheranism, he to ...
French music

French music  

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries France had the richest musical culture in Europe, but in the fifteenth century courtly patronage of music declined, and France produced no major composers. ...
Gaspard de Coligny

Gaspard de Coligny  

(1519–72),French Huguenot leader and admiral of France, born into a noble family; his father and namesake was maréchal de France, and his mother was Louise of Montmorency, the sister ...
Gregory XIII

Gregory XIII  

(1502–85), Pope from 1572. His pontificate was notable for its pro-Spanish temporal policy and its vigorous promotion of the Counter-Reformation. He was committed to implementing the decrees of the ...

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