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Augustus I

Augustus I  

(1526–86),Elector of Saxony, was born in Freiberg on 31 July 1526, the younger son of Heinrich, duke of Saxony, a member of the Albertine branch of the Wettin family. ...
banking

banking  

A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in ...
Battle of the Boyne

Battle of the Boyne  

(1 July 1690)A major defeat for the Stuart cause which confirmed William III's control over Ireland. It took place near Drogheda, where the recently deposed James II and his Irish and French forces ...
billeting

billeting  

The right of the crown to demand accommodation for its troops was always part of the royal prerogative. Though it was never popular, since remuneration was often inadequate, it did not become a major ...
Calvinism

Calvinism  

The Protestant theological system of the French Protestant theologian and reformer John Calvin (1509–64) and his successors, which develops Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone into an ...
Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de' Medici  

(1519–89)Queen of France. The wife of Henry II of France, Catherine ruled as regent (1560–74) during the minority reigns of their three sons, Francis II (reigned 1559–60), Charles IX (reigned ...
Catholic League

Catholic League  

(1576–95),A political and military force representing the Catholic party in France during the central years of the Wars of Religion; individual members of the League were known as Ligueurs. ...
Channel Islands

Channel Islands  

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Overview Page
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History
Dependencies of the British crown—constitutionally odd and financially richThe Channel Islands consist of four main islands and numerous other islets. They are governed as two separate ‘bailiwicks’ ...
Charles de Guise

Charles de Guise  

(1525–74),French cardinal, the younger brother of François de Lorraine, second duke of Guise. He was destined for a career in the Church, to which end he was appointed archbishop ...
Charles IX

Charles IX  

(1550–74),King of France, was the second son of King Henri II and Catherine de Médicis; before his accession he was known as duke of Orléans. In 1560, aged 10 ...
Claudio Aquaviva

Claudio Aquaviva  

(1543–1615), fifth General of the Jesuits from 1581. Under his leadership the Society was consolidated both in respect of its internal structures and its characteristic approach to ministry. Its ...
Colloquy of Poissy

Colloquy of Poissy  

(September–October 1561),A conference between Catholic churchmen (led by Cardinal Tournon and including Diego Laínez, general of the Jesuits) and Protestant theologians (led by Theodore Beza and ...
Condé

Condé  

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History
A junior branch of the French royal House of Bourbon. The name was first borne by Louis I de Bourbon (1530–69), prince de Condé, a military leader of the Huguenots during the first phase of the ...
Count of Nassau Louis

Count of Nassau Louis  

(1538–74),Dutch leader in the Revolt of the Netherlands, the son of William of Nassau and the younger brother of William of Orange. He was raised in the Lutheran faith ...
dissent

dissent  

(nonconformity). Though dissenting sects could trace some of their doctrines to well before the Reformation, for example to the lollards, pre‐Reformation heterodoxy is usually termed schism or ...
Duc de Sully Maximilien de Béthune

Duc de Sully Maximilien de Béthune  

(1560–1641), duke of Sully, early companion of Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV of France), and chief minister in France between about 1598 and 1610.Béthune was born near Mantes-la-Jolie ...
Dutch immigrants

Dutch immigrants  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
The term ‘Dutch’ was used in England not only for the people of Holland, but also those of Flanders, Brabant, and sometimes Germany (‘Deutsch’). Large numbers of immigrants from the ...
Edict of Châteaubriant

Edict of Châteaubriant  

(27 June 1551), a decree signed by King Henri II of France restricting the growth of Protestantism in France. The Edict codified earlier decrees, and strengthened the strictures with respect to the ...
Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes  

(13 April 1598), an edict signed at Nantes by King Henri IV, who granted the Huguenots (his former co-religionists) extensive rights and confirmed earlier edicts of 1564 and 1570. Under ...
families of French origin

families of French origin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
In the Middle Ages and early modern period France provided more immigrants to Britain than any other country. The chief landowners after the Norman Conquest were from Normandy and Brittany.[...]

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