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homeostasis

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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard  

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(1813–1878)French physiologist who formulated the principle of homeostasis, the physiological self-corrective mechanism that “automatically” seeks to restore the normal internal bodily environment ...
closed-loop control

closed-loop control  

In cybernetics, a control process in which a system's output is returned to its input as feedback, this being characteristic of controlled processing and all homeostatic processes. Compare open-loop ...
control mechanism

control mechanism  

Any mechanism that regulates a biological process, such as a metabolic pathway or enzyme-controlled reaction, or that helps to maintain the internal environment (see homeostasis). See also feedback.
cybernetics

cybernetics  

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The study of communications systems and of system control in animals and machines. In the life sciences, it also includes the study of feedback controls in homoeostasis.
drinking

drinking  

Taking in water by mouth to quench thirst. Many aquatic animals take water in through the mouth, but this may play no role in homeostasis. True drinking applies to terrestrial animals that take in ...
feedback

feedback  

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The process by which knowledge acquired from past experiences informs and alters actors' choices when they encounter similar situations. It is a central concept of cybernetics and information theory.
feeding

feeding  

All behaviour that involves the obtaining, manipulation, and ingestion of food. Compare foraging.
glucostatic theory

glucostatic theory  

A homeostatic theory of hunger, according to which the brain monitors the difference between the levels of glucose in the arteries and veins as an index of the rate of glucose removal from the blood. ...
hypothalamus

hypothalamus  

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The region of the brain that controls the autonomic nervous system and links the nervous and endocrine systems of the body. See hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis.
internal environment

internal environment  

The conditions that prevail within the body of an organism, particularly with respect to the composition of the tissue fluid. The concept of an internal environment was first proposed by the French ...
lipostatic theory

lipostatic theory  

A homeostatic theory of hunger according to which the brain monitors the level in the blood of free fatty acids that result from the metabolism of fat. A low level indicates that fat has not recently ...
motivation

motivation  

The cause for a spontaneous change in the behaviour of an animal that occurs independently of any outside stimulus, or of a change in the threshold of responsiveness of an animal to a stimulus, and ...
negative feedback

negative feedback  

A mechanism of regulation in which the products of a process or reaction act to inhibit their own formation. Negative feedback tends to stabilize systems whereas positive feedback amplifies.
osmoreceptor

osmoreceptor  

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n. a group of cells in the hypothalamus that monitor blood concentration. Should this increase abnormally, as in dehydration, the osmoreceptors send nerve impulses to the hypothalamus, which then ...
osmoregulation

osmoregulation  

The control of the water content and the concentration of salts in the body of an animal or protist (see osmoregulator). In freshwater species osmoregulation must counteract the tendency for water to ...
principle of constancy

principle of constancy  

In psychoanalysis, the proposition that the quantity of psychic energy within the mental apparatus remains constant, regulation being achieved through discharge of excess energy in abreaction and ...
regulator

regulator  

Any organism that can maintain a constant internal environment largely independently of the external environment. This is generally achieved by homeostatic mechanisms (see homeostasis). Regulators ...
set point

set point  

A natural state to which a dynamically stable system tends to return if perturbed, such as normal body temperature of 37°C, or the weight to which a person's body tends to revert after loss or gain ...
steady state

steady state  

A system where input is balanced by output; see Willet and Brandon (2002) Geology 30, 2 on steady states in mountain belts. See also dynamic equilibrium.
stress

stress  

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The force applied to a unit area of a substance measured in newtons per square metre. Compressive stress crushes the rock; see Bunds (2001) GSA Bull. 113, 7. Tensile stress is a force which tends to ...

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