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Adolf I of Altena, archbishop of Cologne

Adolf I of Altena, archbishop of Cologne  

(d. 1205)Supporter of the Guelph faction, especially in the coronation of Otto IV (1198). In order to secure his rights as an imperial prince as well as money, he ...
Arezzo

Arezzo  

A Tuscan city located in the upper valley of the Arno river, Arezzo flourished in the 13th century as a Ghibelline commune rival to Siena and Florence. An important Etruscan ...
Bartolo da Sassoferrato

Bartolo da Sassoferrato  

(1313–57),Italian jurist and political theorist. He studied law at Perugia and Bologna and practised as a judicial assessor at Todi and Pisa, and from 1343 taught law at Perugia. ...
Battle of Legnano

Battle of Legnano  

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The battle of Legnano was fought on 29 May 1176 between the Lombard League of northern Italian cities and Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. It ...
Bavaria

Bavaria  

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A south German duchy ruled by the Wittelsbach family (see Appendix 1) from 1180 to 1918. From 1253 to 1504 the duchy was repeatedly partitioned, initially into Upper Bavaria and ...
Bergamo

Bergamo  

Situated in the present-day Italian region of Lombardy, the city of Bergamo lies close to the Alpine foothills. During Lombard rule (568/9–774), it was the site of an important duchy ...
Bianchi e Neri

Bianchi e Neri  

(‘Whites and Blacks’)Tuscan Guelph factions of the beginning of the 14th century. They were chiefly associated with Florence and linked to the antagonism between the families of the Cerchi ...
Brescia

Brescia  

A fortified city and episcopal see in Lombardy. In 1426 Brescia passed from the Visconti family to Venice, to which it belonged until 1797. In February 1512, during the Wars ...
Charles I of Anjou

Charles I of Anjou  

(1226–85)King of Naples and Sicily (1266–85), son of Louis VIII of France. He acquired Provence by marriage in 1246. Pope Urban IV was under severe threat from the Hohenstaufens and gave him the ...
Ciompi Revolution

Ciompi Revolution  

The ciompi were the day-labourers in the wool industry in Florence; they were not allowed to join the Wool Guild or form their own association. They were subject to summary ...
Colonna family

Colonna family  

A Ghibelline family that held large estates in the Papal State south of Rome and in the kingdom of Naples; the Colonna were the perpetual rivals of the Orsini, whose ...
Cremona

Cremona  

A city and episcopal see in Lombardy, incorporated into the duchy of Milan in the early fifteenth century. Cremona was occupied by Venice (1499–1509). Thereafter it was subject to the ...
Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri  

(1265–1321),Italian poet, whose reputation rests chiefly on The Divine Comedy (c. 1309–20), an epic poem describing his spiritual journey through Hell and Purgatory and finally to Paradise. His love ...
Della Scala

Della Scala  

An extremely influential Ghibelline political dynasty that controlled the city-state of Verona from 1277 to 1387. During the early 1200s, the della Scala (or Scaliger) family steadily grew more ...
Ferrara

Ferrara  

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History
Italian city of uncertain origin located in the east of the Po valley. In the 6th century Ferrara was controlled by the exarchate of Ravenna and in the 8th century ...
Fieschi family

Fieschi family  

Of the stock of the counts of Lavagna, whose founder was probably a Ugus Fliscus mentioned in the second half of the 12th c., the Fieschi family of Genoa, initially ...
Florence

Florence  

Founded in the 3rd century bc during the republican period of Roman history. Until the 13th century its demographic, political, and economic development would not have distinguished it from other ...
Frederick I

Frederick I  

(c. 1123–90)King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. He was drowned ...
Frederick II

Frederick II  

(Roman emperor) (1194–1250) King of Sicily, emperor, and king of Jerusalem, Frederick was heir to the greatness and turmoil of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.Born in Sicily and crowned king in ...
Genoa

Genoa  

“A city thrown at the sea” and backed by the arid slopes of the Apennines, Genoa built its fortune on the exploitation of the sea. The site, occupied from the ...

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