Overview

Sigmund Freud

(1856—1939) founder of psychoanalysis

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agnosia

agnosia  

Originally Sigmund Freud used the term agnosia to mean loss of perception. It is now applied to disorders whereby the patient cannot interpret sensory information correctly even though the sense ...
Alexander Romanovich Luria

Alexander Romanovich Luria  

(1902–77).Soviet psychologist, probably the only one to become generally known outside the USSR after the Second World War. Born in Kazan of Jewish extraction, Luria was educated at the ...
Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler  

(1870–1937)Austrian psychiatrist who founded a school of thought based on the psychology of the individual and introduced the concept of the inferiority feeling (later called inferiority ...
blushing

blushing  

Uncontrollable reddening of the cheeks, and sometimes the ears and neck, is associated with embarrassment and guilt. Charles Darwin made the most interesting suggestion: that blushing is a warning ...
Carl Wernicke

Carl Wernicke  

(1848–1905).German neurologist and psychiatrist who qualified at the University of Breslau and returned to it many years later as a professor after spending several years in Berlin. He trained ...
cathexis

cathexis  

In psychoanalysis, the emotional charge associated with an instinct (3), or the process of investing psychic energy in a part of the body or an instinctual object. The Austrian physician Josef Breuer ...
classification of psychiatric disorders

classification of psychiatric disorders  

Historical aspectsAdvances in classification have made important contributions to the progress of physical, biological, and even the human sciences. Kepler, Tycho Brahe, and Galileo laid the ...
complex

complex  

1 An organized structure made up of interconnected units.2 In psychoanalysis, an organized collection of ideas, emotions, impulses, and memories that share a common emotional tone and that have been ...
creativity

creativity  

The production of ideas and objects that are both novel or original and worthwhile or appropriate, that is, useful, attractive, meaningful, or correct. According to some researchers, in order to ...
defence mechanism

defence mechanism  

(di-fenss)the means whereby an undesirable impulse can be avoided or controlled. Defence mechanisms include repression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation, and splitting.
dissociation of the personality

dissociation of the personality  

Two—or more— mental processes can be said to be dissociated if they coexist or alternate without becoming connected or influencing one another. Prior to Sigmund Freud and to the discovery ...
ego

ego  

(eg-oh)(in psychoanalysis) the part of the mind that develops from a person's experience of the outside world and is most in touch with external realities.
ego and superego

ego and superego  

Sigmund Freud supposed that three components make up the psychic structure: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id represents instincts and innate needs. The superego, manifest in conscience ...
ego psychology

ego psychology  

A school of psychoanalysis based on the analysis of the ego, founded in 1939 by the Austrian-born US psychoanalyst Heinz Hartmann (1894–1970), including the US-based German psychologist Ernst Kris ...
Ewald Hering

Ewald Hering  

(1834–1918).German physiologist, born and raised near the Bohemian border; the son of a pastor. He studied medicine in Leipzig in the 1850s. His contributions to sensory physiology contrast ...
free association

free association  

(in psychoanalysis) a technique in which the patient is encouraged to pursue a particular train of ideas as they enter consciousness. See also association of ideas.
Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy  

A form of counselling or psychotherapy, unconnected with Gestalt psychology, developed in the United States during the 1960s by the German-born psychiatrist Fritz (Frederick) Perls (1893–1970), in ...
hypnagogic image

hypnagogic image  

A dreamlike image, often vivid and resembling a hallucination, generally accompanied by sleep paralysis, experienced by a person in the transition state from wakefulness to sleep. See also Isakower ...
id

id  

According to Freud, the unconscious reservoir of primitive instincts from which spring the forces of behaviour and the conflicts and guilts of neurosis.(Published 1987)
incest taboo

incest taboo  

The custom or law in all societies prohibiting sex and marriage between members of the nuclear family, the universality of the taboo being notoriously difficult to explain. According to the ...

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