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cent

cent  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 A monetary unit of American Samoa, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belau, Belize, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Canada, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, East ...
drachma

drachma  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(Dr) Formerly, the standard monetary unit of Greece, divided into 100 lepta. It was subsumed into the euro for all purposes except cash transactions in 2001 and abolished in 2002.
ERM

ERM  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Abbreviation for Exchange Rate Mechanism. See European Monetary System.
ESCB

ESCB  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Abbreviation for European System of Central Banks. See European Central Bank.
escudo

escudo  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 The standard monetary unit of Cape Verde (CV Esc), divided into 100 centavos.2 The former monetary unit of Portugal and Madeira, divided into 100 centavos. It was subsumed into the euro for all ...
eurocheque

eurocheque  

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Overview Page
Formerly, a cheque drawn on a European bank that could be cashed at any bank or bureau de change in the world displaying the European Union sign; they could also be used to pay for goods and services ...
European Currency Unit

European Currency Unit  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(Ecu)A unit of account introduced by the European Economic Community when forming the European Monetary System in 1979. The Ecu was a form of international money used by various official European ...
European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(EMU)The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank (1999) and a single European currency for participatein states. See feature Economic and Monetary Union.
European economic integration

European economic integration  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process by which the various countries of Europe are becoming more closely linked, particularly in trade and finance. This is partly the result of natural economic developments: trade has ...
European Monetary Cooperation Fund

European Monetary Cooperation Fund  

(EMCOF)A fund organized by the European Monetary System in which members of the European Union deposited reserves to provide a pool of resources to stabilize exchange rates and to finance balance of ...
European Monetary System

European Monetary System  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(EMS)A European organization set up in 1979 to coordinate monetary policy and exchange rates in Europe. Its main activities were running the Exchange Rate Mechanism and planning European Monetary ...
European Union

European Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(EU)The name since 1993 of the former European Community. The EU was formed with twelve members: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, ...
Eurosox

Eurosox  

See Company Reporting Directive; Statutory Audit Directive.
Eurosystem

Eurosystem  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The monetary authority of the Eurozone. The Eurosystem is composed of the European Central Bank and the central banks of the European Union member states that have adopted the Euro.
eurozone

eurozone  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The 13 member countries of the European Union that have adopted the euro as their currency, namely Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, ...
fix

fix  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 The determination and setting of an interest or exchange rate, or security or commodity price. Used principally for determining reference rates for euronotes, floating rate certificates of deposit; ...
Geoffrey Howe

Geoffrey Howe  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Glamorgan, 20 Dec. 1926)British; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1979–83, Foreign Secretary 1983–9; Kt. 1970, Baron (life peer) 1992 Howe was born in Port Talbot in south Wales. His father was a ...
gold standard

gold standard  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The setting of the value of a paper currency by reference to and exchangeable for gold (cf. convertibility). The USA operated a gold standard until 1971 fixed at US$35 an ounce.[...]
hard Ecu

hard Ecu  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A proposal for a European Currency Unit (Ecu) that would initially have been equal in value to a bundle of European currencies, but could not subsequently be devalued relative to any member currency. ...
Helmut Kohl

Helmut Kohl  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. 3 Apr. 1930).Chancellor of West Germany 1982–98Early careerOne of the co‐founders of the CDU youth organization in 1946, he joined the CDU in 1947, three years before he finished high school. ...

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