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cryosphere

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Cryosat

Cryosat  

A European Space Agency satellite, designed specifically to monitor long-term changes in the cryosphere. The initial satellite was lost through a launcher failure in October 2005, but a replacement ...
geosphere

geosphere  

The upper part of the continental crust, together with the soil and organic matter found on or close to the surface. It is the part of the solid Earth that supports life and interacts directly with ...
glacier

glacier  

A mass of ice which may be moving, or has moved, overland: when enough ice has accumulated, a glacier will start to move forwards. A glacier may be seen to be the result of a balance between ...
hydrological cycle

hydrological cycle  

(water cycle)This is the movement of water and its transformation between the gaseous (vapour), liquid, and solid forms. The major processes are condensation by which precipitation is formed, ...
hydrosphere

hydrosphere  

The portion of the Earth's surface that consists of water, as distinct from the solid, rocky lithosphere and the gaseous atmosphere. It is also generally taken to include the cryosphere.
ice sheet

ice sheet  

A large ice mass, with an area usually greater than about 50 000 km2, made up of ice domes and outlet glaciers. The Antarctic ice sheet is the world's largest, with an area of about 11.5 × 106 km2 ...
permafrost

permafrost  

Permanently frozen ground which occupies some 26% of the Earth's land surface under thermal conditions where temperatures below 0 °C have persisted for at least two consecutive winters and the ...
sea ice

sea ice  

Ice that is formed by the freezing of seawater and can extend out from the land as pack ice, for example around the Antarctic.

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