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cryosphere

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biosphere

biosphere  

The whole of the region of the earth's surface, the sea, and the air that is inhabited by living organisms.
climate system

climate system  

The five interacting environmental systems (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere) that are responsible for the climate and its variations.
Cryosat

Cryosat  

A European Space Agency satellite, designed specifically to monitor long-term changes in the cryosphere. The initial satellite was lost through a launcher failure in October 2005, but a replacement ...
Earth system

Earth system  

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In the mid-1980s francis bretherton, a British-born fluid dynamicist, was chairman of NASA's Earth System Science Committee. He produced a diagram to show what he meant by the Earth system. ...
environmental system

environmental system  

A system that is based on the natural environment and includes biotic and abiotic components which interact. The major environmental systems are the atmosphere (air), biosphere (living organisms), ...
geosphere

geosphere  

The upper part of the continental crust, together with the soil and organic matter found on or close to the surface. It is the part of the solid Earth that supports life and interacts directly with ...
glaciation

glaciation  

1 The process by which supercooled water droplets change into ice crystals in the top of a cumulonimbus cloud as it reaches the calvus stage. The cloud may subsequently develop capillatus features or ...
glacier

glacier  

A mass of ice which may be moving, or has moved, overland: when enough ice has accumulated, a glacier will start to move forwards. A glacier may be seen to be the result of a balance between ...
hydrological cycle

hydrological cycle  

(water cycle)This is the movement of water and its transformation between the gaseous (vapour), liquid, and solid forms. The major processes are condensation by which precipitation is formed, ...
hydrosphere

hydrosphere  

The portion of the Earth's surface that consists of water, as distinct from the solid, rocky lithosphere and the gaseous atmosphere. It is also generally taken to include the cryosphere.
ice sheet

ice sheet  

A large ice mass, with an area usually greater than about 50 000 km2, made up of ice domes and outlet glaciers. The Antarctic ice sheet is the world's largest, with an area of about 11.5 × 106 km2 ...
Ice-rafting events

Ice-rafting events  

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Glacial surges in sudden changes of climateCalved from greenland's glaciers, icebergs migrate south in spring and early summer, carried by the subzero Labrador Current. When they meet the warm ...
Land Surface Processes

Land Surface Processes  

The study of rates of land surface change has always been a central focus of geomorphologic research (Goudie, 1995). Geomorphologists, who study the nature and history of landform development and ...
permafrost

permafrost  

Permanently frozen ground which occupies some 26% of the Earth's land surface under thermal conditions where temperatures below 0 °C have persisted for at least two consecutive winters and the ...
sea ice

sea ice  

Ice that is formed by the freezing of seawater and can extend out from the land as pack ice, for example around the Antarctic.
Snow Cover

Snow Cover  

Snow cover is the most spatially extensive and seasonally variable component of the global cryosphere. On average, snow covers 46 million square kilometers, or half, of the Northern Hemisphere land ...
tundra

tundra  

A terrestrial biome characterized by a lack of trees and a permanently frozen subsoil. Tundra lies to the north of the taiga in North America and Eurasia; the vegetation is dominated by grasses, ...

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