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2nd earl of Clarendon, Henry Hyde

(1638—1709) politician

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Charles II

Charles II  

(1630–85),king of England, Ireland, and Scotland (acceded 1649, restored 1660–85). Charles received his practical education in 1648–51 when he learnt how to adapt to rapidly changing circumstances, ...
Clarendon code

Clarendon code  

The title given, inaccurately, to the statutes passed after the Restoration re‐establishing the Church of England. They embodied the vindictiveness of the cavalier majority in Parliament rather than ...
Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington

Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington  

(c.1579–1652).Cottington was a Somerset gentleman who became a leading minister before the Civil War. He was first employed by James I in Spanish matters, knew the country well, and ...
George Goring

George Goring  

(1608–57).Royalist commander in the Civil War. Despite being universally disliked, George, Lord Goring, rose high in the king's service. He was first under Newcastle in Yorkshire and gained a notable ...
Henrietta Maria

Henrietta Maria  

(1609–69)Daughter of Henry IV of France, queen consort of Charles I of England (1625–49). Her Roman Catholicism heightened public anxieties about the court's religious sympathies and was a ...
Henry Cromwell

Henry Cromwell  

(1628–74).Oliver's fourth son. Captain of horse at 19, he rose to command his own cavalry regiment in his father's expeditionary force to Ireland in 1650. He stayed on there ...
James II

James II  

King of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland, b. 14 Oct. 1633, 2nd s. of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; acc. 6 Feb. 1685; deemed to have abdic. 11 Dec. 1688; m. (1) Anne, da. of Edward Hyde ...
John Bastwick

John Bastwick  

(1593–1654).Bastwick was an indefatigable opponent of Laud and the bishops. Born in Essex, he went to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and then practised as a physician. In the 1630s he ...
John Lambert

John Lambert  

(1619–83)English major‐general. He rose to prominence as a Roundhead officer during the English Civil War. He accompanied Cromwell as second‐in‐command on the invasion of Scotland (1650). He ...
Mary II

Mary II  

(1662–94),queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689–94). Mary was the elder daughter of James, duke of York, by his first wife Anne Hyde, daughter of the earl of Clarendon, Charles II's first ...
public schools

public schools  

During the Middle Ages, the grammar school provided education for poor scholars intended for the church and for the sons of noblemen. This included such schools as Eton and Winchester. By the 18th ...
Richard Talbot Tyrconnel, 1st Earl

Richard Talbot Tyrconnel, 1st Earl  

(I)(1630–91).Talbot, a younger son from Co. Kildare, fought for the king in the 1640s and escaped from the destruction of Drogheda in 1649. In the 1650s he was appointed a groom of the bedchamber to ...
Sir Arthur Haselrig

Sir Arthur Haselrig  

(c. 1600–61).Haselrig, a Leicestershire baronet, was a leader of the parliamentary cause throughout the civil wars. A staunch puritan, educated at Cambridge and Gray's Inn, he was a close associate ...
Sir Ralph Hopton

Sir Ralph Hopton  

(1596–1652).One of the most successful royalist commanders during the Civil War, Hopton was given a barony in 1643. In the Long Parliament, he initially opposed the king, voting for Strafford's ...
1st duke of Newcastle, William Cavendish

1st duke of Newcastle, William Cavendish  

(1593–1676).Newcastle was one of the leading royalist commanders during the Civil War. A man of vast estates in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, he made spectacular progress up the peerage ladder, ...
1st earl of Arlington, Henry Bennet

1st earl of Arlington, Henry Bennet  

(1618–85).Having fought for the crown in the Civil War, the future foreign minister of Charles II represented him at Madrid during Cromwell's alliance with France against Spain. Financially dependent ...
1st earl of Brentford, Patrick Ruthven

1st earl of Brentford, Patrick Ruthven  

(c. 1573–1651).Ruthven was a professional soldier who spent most of his life in the Swedish service, rising to lieutenant-general. In 1638, well over the age of 60, and with ...
1st earl of Middleton, John Middleton

1st earl of Middleton, John Middleton  

[S] (c. 1608–73).From Kincardineshire, Middleton was a soldier of fortune. He began his military career in France but joined the Scottish covenanting army in 1639. He transferred to the ...
1st earl of Portland, Richard Weston

1st earl of Portland, Richard Weston  

(1577–1635).Of an Essex family, Weston trained at the Middle Temple and sat in the House of Commons for various constituencies until raised to the peerage. After administrative and diplomatic ...
1st earl of Rochester, Laurence Hyde

1st earl of Rochester, Laurence Hyde  

(1642–1711).Laurence Hyde was the second son of the historian and lord chancellor and younger brother of the 2nd earl of Clarendon. His sister Anne married the duke of York (later James II) in 1660 ...

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