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Article 9

Article 9  

Article 9 of the Japanese constitution has been, and continues to be, a significant restraint on Japanese militarism. In 1946, when the new constitution was enacted, Japanese militarism was seen ...
Community Peacebuilding Initiatives, Faith-Based

Community Peacebuilding Initiatives, Faith-Based  

As faith-based community peacebuilding initiatives proliferate around the world, the distinction between peacemaking and peacebuilding is important to understand. Peacemaking means defusing a ...
Community Peacebuilding Initiatives, Local NGOs and

Community Peacebuilding Initiatives, Local NGOs and  

With the shift from traditional peacekeeping approaches, intended to stop direct violence, toward longer-term peacebuilding processes, aimed at addressing the root causes of armed conflict and ...
Culture of Peace

Culture of Peace  

The concept of a culture of peace derives from the much older concept of peace, which has often been defined as the absence of war. In this regard, one can ...
Democratization and Peace within States

Democratization and Peace within States  

Democratization is a political process marked by a transition from an authoritarian regime to a more open and representative form of government. Although democratization is often seen as a state ...
Dialogue Process

Dialogue Process  

Dialogue has been a celebrated form of social discourse since antiquity, with the Platonic dialogues being perhaps the most widely recognized historical form. Over the centuries, dialogue has ...
Eastern European Revolutions of 1989

Eastern European Revolutions of 1989  

In January 1989 communist regimes were in power in the six Eastern European states allied with the Soviet Union: Hungary, Poland, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and ...
Globalization and Peace Issues

Globalization and Peace Issues  

The term globalization emerged in the last quarter of the twentieth century as a popular description of trends, patterns, and processes purportedly reshaping economic, political, and social life ...
Globalization, Fissure, and Conflict

Globalization, Fissure, and Conflict  

Since 1990, and in particular since the end of the Cold War, international political life has been characterized by two competing, large-scale movements to redefine the political space that would ...
Internationalist Theory and Liberal Democracy

Internationalist Theory and Liberal Democracy  

“Democracy” means “people-rule” (demos [people] and kratia [rule]). There are different kinds of democracy, including presidential and parliamentary, with varying blends of socialist and ...
Lutheran World Relief

Lutheran World Relief  

Lutheran World Relief (LWR) is a nongovernmental organization founded in 1945, based in Baltimore, Maryland. According to its mission statement, the agency works “with partners in 35 countries to ...
Malaysia and Conflict Avoidance

Malaysia and Conflict Avoidance  

The riots that took place on 13 May 1969 are memorialized as the culmination of ethnic violence, concern over which remains an underlying fear in the country. Conflicting versions of ...
Peacebuilding

Peacebuilding  

[This entry contains three subentries: An Overview; Theoretical and Historical Analyses; and Mapping Actors of Peacebuilding.]In 1992, as Cold War politico-military clashes quieted down, United ...
Third-party Role in Conflict Resolution

Third-party Role in Conflict Resolution  

At its broadest, third party is a term used to describe a person or group that intervenes in a conflict to bring about an improvement of the situation, whether that ...
Training for Peacebuilding

Training for Peacebuilding  

In his 1992 report, An Agenda for Peace, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali proposed a new field of action for the United Nations. Postconflict peacebuilding was defined as “action to ...
Transnational Social Movements

Transnational Social Movements  

While diminishing the exclusivity of states as international actors, the process of globalization has opened up spaces for new social actors. A new international political opportunity structure has ...

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