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Alan of Lille

Alan of Lille  

(d. 1203), poet, theologian, and preacher. He probably studied and taught at Paris c.1150–c.1185. Later he moved to the South of France and towards the end of his life entered the abbey of Cîteaux. ...
Albi

Albi  

A modest vicus Albi owed its promotion to the administrative reforms of the 4th c., which made it the capital of a civitas and a diocese. Its importance long remained ...
Apocrypha, Bogomil

Apocrypha, Bogomil  

The Bogomils, in an effort to justify and propagate their teachings, made use of the Slavonic versions of several early Greek apocrypha, among them The Book of Baruch, The Book ...
battle of Muret

battle of Muret  

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In September 1213 Pedro II of Aragon entered southern France to defend his vassals and territories against Simon de Montfort, the leader of the Albigensian Crusade, most of whose forty-day ...
Beaucaire

Beaucaire  

A trading town on the main route from Italy to Spain at the Rhône, once in the kingdom of Burgundy, then held by the counts of Provence, then (1125) by ...
Bernard Gui

Bernard Gui  

(c.1261–1331), Dominican historian. He was appointed inquisitor of Toulouse in 1307 and Bp. of Lodève in 1324. He is remembered chiefly for his contribution to the history of the Dominican Order.
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina  

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The northern half of the state of Bosnia‐Hercegovina since 1580. The term is generally used as an abbreviation for the entire state since its independence in 1992.
Carcassonne

Carcassonne  

City dominating the Aude between Narbonne and Toulouse. A Roman colony later fortified by a 4th-century Visigothic fortress, then by Arabs (after 725). Bishopric established c.570. After Frankish ...
Champagne

Champagne  

Province of France. During the MA, the influential counts of Champagne were virtually independent of their nominal suzerain, the king of France, until the conquest of Champagne by Philip III ...
consolamentum

consolamentum  

Cathar rite of initiation into the ranks of the elite. The ritual, which elevated the ordinary believer to the status of a perfectus, was derived from Bogomil practice and was ...
Dominicans

Dominicans  

[Ge]A religious order of friars, known as Black Friars, introduced in the early 13th century ad and concerned to maintain the faith and convert the infidel.
Ekbert of Schönau

Ekbert of Schönau  

(c.1120–1184)Born to a Noble Rhineland family very devoted to the Church, Ekbert studied at Paris and then became a canon of the chapter of Saints Cassius and Florent at ...
Elementary Instruction

Elementary Instruction  

Christianity being a religion of the book, it was necessary for everyone, laity, clerics and monks, to have at least an elementary instruction. From the beginning of the Middle Ages ...
Folquet de Marselha

Folquet de Marselha  

(fl. 1172–1203, d. 1231) Troubadour from a merchant family in Marseilles.Folquet took orders c.1195, becoming bishop of Toulouse in 1205. He participated in the Albigensian Crusade. He was probably ...
Gregory IX, Pope

Gregory IX, Pope  

(c.1170–1241)Ugo (or Ugolino) was born c.1170 into the family of the Conti de Segni, who held possessions in the region of Anagni. His degree of kinship with Innocent III ...
heresy, Judaizers

heresy, Judaizers  

Diverse and perhaps falsely named ‘Jewish-thinking Novgorod heretics’, c.1470–1515. Several factors lay behind the dissent, hostilely depicted as Jewish in origin: ties with Europe, translations of ...
Host Desecration

Host Desecration  

Stories about desecration of the Host by doubting Christians or unbelievers circulated in medieval Europe, particularly after the year 1200 as interest in the nature of the Eucharist grew. From ...
Inquisition

Inquisition  

An ecclesiastical tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX c.1232 for the suppression of heresy, at a time when certain heretical groups were regarded by the Church as enemies of society. It was ...
Italy and Sicily

Italy and Sicily  

The authority of the last western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, did not extend beyond the Italian peninsula. The rivalry between him and Odoacer, of an east Germanic tribe and a ...
Languedoc

Languedoc  

(province) Region of southern France between Rhône and Roussillon, from the Mediterranean to the Pyrenees. It is named after the Occitan language spoken there (in which ‘oc’ means ‘yes’), after ...

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