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B.A. Santamaria

B.A. Santamaria  

Born in Melbourne in 1915 of Italian immigrants, B. A. (‘Bob’) Santamaria (1915–98) won a scholarship to study law at Melbourne University from 1932. He joined the Campion Society to ...
Black Church

Black Church  

Apart from the ancient Churches of Nubia and Ethiopia, Black Churches originated in the 18th cent. among the descendants of African slaves in the United States of America. From the 1740s, evangelical ...
Daniel Mannix

Daniel Mannix  

(1864–1963),Catholic ecclesiastic. Born in Co. Cork, he taught at Maynooth and became president there in 1903, before being appointed coadjutor archbishop of Melbourne in 1912 and archbishop in 1917. ...
ethnic group

ethnic group  

A community or group of people with distinctive social, cultural, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish them from others in the same or different country or society. Members of an ethnic ...
Free, secular and compulsory

Free, secular and compulsory  

Were conditions set down in Victoria's Education Act of 1872 and followed by other colonies, though their education systems were not so rigorously secular. They retained separate religious ...
Germans in Australia

Germans in Australia  

Have been part of Australian history from the beginning of British settlement (Governor Phillip and Augustus Alt, the first surveyor, were sons of German fathers). Substantial immigration began in ...
Henry Parkes

Henry Parkes  

(1815–96)is the best known of Australia's nineteenth-century politicians. He owes this to durability, his career of nearly half a century in NSW politics culminating in well-timed advocacy of the ...
Irish in Australia

Irish in Australia  

Were ‘a founding people’ in its colonisation. This has become a standard proposition in Australian historiography. Though they were at all times only a small part of total emigration from ...
Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan  

An extremist right-wing secret society in the US. The Ku Klux Klan was originally founded in the southern states after the Civil War to oppose social change and black emancipation by violence and ...
Literacy in the Colonial Period

Literacy in the Colonial Period  

Though merely one step in the acculturation of Africans into American or European society, literacy was a powerful tool with which American blacks improved their conditions and fought against the ...
Mary Helen MacKillop

Mary Helen MacKillop  

(1842–1909),foundress, Australia's first saint. Born of Scottish parents, the eldest of eight children, she worked as a teacher at Penola in South Australia where she met Julian Tenison Woods, a ...
Mary Vincent Whitty

Mary Vincent Whitty  

(1819–92)was an Irish nun who established a convent for the Sisters of Mercy in Qld during the 1860s. This order was founded in Dublin in 1831 by Catherine McAuley ...
Movement

Movement  

Was a secret Catholic political organisation founded in 1939 by Daniel Mannix, the archbishop of Melbourne, and administered by B. A. Santamaria. Known in full as the Catholic Social Studies ...
Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell  

(1599–1658).General and lord protector. It is still difficult to appreciate the unique character of Cromwell's career. In a country governed by custom, precedent, and the common law, Cromwell ...
Ottobah Cugoano

Ottobah Cugoano  

(c.1757–?1803)Sold into slavery from present‐day Ghana to the Caribbean. Freed, he settled in London, becoming active in abolitionist circles, meeting William Blake, and collaborating with Olaudah ...
Patrick Francis Moran

Patrick Francis Moran  

(1830–1911),born Ireland and educated at the Irish College in Rome, was ordained in 1853, established a distinguished reputation as academic and ecclesiastic and became archbishop of Sydney in 1884 ...
Pierre Toussaint

Pierre Toussaint  

(b. c. 1778; d. 30 June 1853), a former slave, philanthropist, and hairdresser to New York City's elite women.Pierre Toussaint was a singular, yet elusive figure. The quality of ...
Quiet Revolution

Quiet Revolution  

A term which first appeared in Canada's main national newspaper, the Globe and Mail, to describe the changes in the Canadian province of Quebec, introduced by the provincial Liberal government of ...
Religion

Religion  

The importance of religion in the African American experience cannot be overstated. Religion can be seen as both worldview and human organization, and from both perspectives, women have been at ...
slave Narratives

slave Narratives  

A written account by an escaped or freed slave of his or her experiences of slavery. A special American form of autobiography, the slave narrative appeared as an important kind of abolitionist ...

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