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António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar  

(b. 8 Apr. 1889, d. 27 July 1970).Prime Minister of Portugal 1932–68Early careerBorn in Vimieiro (Beira Alta), he studied at a Roman Catholic school to prepare for the priesthood, but then decided to ...
Balilla

Balilla  

Italian Fascist youth movement Constituted on 3 April 1926, it was organized in three main sections, the Balilla (8–15‐year‐old boys), the Avanguardie (15–18‐year‐old boys), and the Piccole Italiane ...
Béla Kun

Béla Kun  

(b. 20 Feb. 1886, d. 1941).Hungarian Communist dictator 1919Born in Cehu Silvaniei, he graduated as a lawyer from Kolozsvar before World War I. As prisoner of war (1916–18) in Russia he became a ...
Conservative Party, Canada

Conservative Party, Canada  

Early history (up to 1920)The Conservative Party emerged from the Liberal‐Conservative government in Upper Canada of Sir John A. Macdonald (b. 1815, d. 1891) in 1854. After the creation of the ...
Estado Novo (New State)

Estado Novo (New State)  

The official name of the Portuguese dictatorship, which was established by Carmona in 1926 and came to bear the imprint of Salazar (1928–68). Its central features were economic stringency and ...
Falange

Falange  

A Spanish political party, the Falange Española. Founded in 1933 by José António Primo de Rivera, the son of General Primo de Rivera, its members were equally opposed to the reactionary Right and the ...
François Duvalier

François Duvalier  

(b. 14 Apr. 1907, d. 21 Apr. 1971).President of Haiti 1957–71 A medical doctor by profession, which earned him the nickname ‘Papa Doc’, he became President with the support of Black nationalist ...
Ian Paisley

Ian Paisley  

(1926– )Northern Irish clergyman; First Minister of Northern Ireland from 2007. He became a minister of the Free Presbyterian Church in 1946, and its leader from 1951 to 2007. Paisley first became ...
István Count Bethlen of Bethlen

István Count Bethlen of Bethlen  

(b. 8 Oct. 1874, d. 1947?).Prime Minister of Hungary 1921–31 Born into an aristocratic family in Transylvania, he was first elected to the Hungarian parliament in 1901. A committed ...
John A. Costello

John A. Costello  

(1891–1976)Irish Fine Gael politician, Prime Minister of the Republic of Ireland (1948–51; 1954–57).
Jozef Glemp

Jozef Glemp  

(b. 18 Dec. 1929).Primate of Poland 1981– Born in Inowroclaw, he was ordained a priest in 1956 and obtained a doctorate in civil and canon law at the Lateran and Gregorian Universities in Rome. He ...
Jozef Tiso

Jozef Tiso  

(b. 18 Oct. 1887, d. 18 Apr. 1947).President of the Slovak Republic 1939–45 Born in Vel'ká Bytca, he was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1910. After World War I he became interested in politics. ...
Juan Domingo Perón

Juan Domingo Perón  

(1895–1974)Argentine statesman and president (1946–55; 1973–74), who succeeded in winning the support of the working classes through his powers of oratory and programme of social reform.Born in Lobos ...
Lech Wałęsa

Lech Wałęsa  

(b. 19 Sept. 1943).President of Poland 1990–5Trade union leaderBorn in Popovo, he became an electrician and worked at the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk (Danzig). He became the leader of the Solidarność ...
Manuel Azaña y Díaz

Manuel Azaña y Díaz  

(b. 10 Jan. 1880, d. 3 Nov. 1940).President of Spain 1936–9 Born in Alcalá de Henares, he graduated with a doctorate in jurisprudence from the University of Madrid in 1900. After working in the ...
Popular Party

Popular Party  

Spain's major centre‐right party. Founded in 1989, it was created from a number of parties that emerged from conservative and centre‐right groups of the late Franco era. The most important of these ...
Radical Party

Radical Party  

Argentina's main consistently democratic political party was founded in 1892. Radicals consisted of a coalition of groups which had failed to take part in Argentina's agricultural export boom, such ...
Stefan Wyszynski

Stefan Wyszynski  

(b. 3 Aug. 1901, d. 28 May 1981).Primate of Poland 1948–81 Born in Zuzela, he studied at the Roman Catholic University of Lublin, before becoming a teacher at a seminary, where he was noted for his ...
Union nationale

Union nationale  

A political party in Quebec formed in 1935 by Conservative leaders to break the hold of the Liberal Party on the province. Like the Cooperative Commonwealth Foundation and the Social Credit Party, it ...

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