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abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
anticlericalism

anticlericalism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The opposition to the secular influence of the Church, usually the Roman Catholic Church. It was a major theme in the domestic politics of several European countries during the late nineteenth ...
António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar  

(b. 8 Apr. 1889, d. 27 July 1970).Prime Minister of Portugal 1932–68Early careerBorn in Vimieiro (Beira Alta), he studied at a Roman Catholic school to prepare for the priesthood, but then decided to ...
archive

archive  

A historical document. The plural form is also applied to the place where such documents are housed, e.g. a county record office.
B.A. Santamaria

B.A. Santamaria  

Born in Melbourne in 1915 of Italian immigrants, B. A. (‘Bob’) Santamaria (1915–98) won a scholarship to study law at Melbourne University from 1932. He joined the Campion Society to ...
Balilla

Balilla  

Italian Fascist youth movement Constituted on 3 April 1926, it was organized in three main sections, the Balilla (8–15‐year‐old boys), the Avanguardie (15–18‐year‐old boys), and the Piccole Italiane ...
Béla Kun

Béla Kun  

(b. 20 Feb. 1886, d. 1941).Hungarian Communist dictator 1919Born in Cehu Silvaniei, he graduated as a lawyer from Kolozsvar before World War I. As prisoner of war (1916–18) in Russia he became a ...
Black Church

Black Church  

Apart from the ancient Churches of Nubia and Ethiopia, Black Churches originated in the 18th cent. among the descendants of African slaves in the United States of America. From the 1740s, evangelical ...
Christian Democracy

Christian Democracy  

Christian democracy has been a successful post‐war political movement in Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, Latin America. Its sociological and ideological origins, however, lie in the ...
Church and State

Church and State  

[This brief review is designed to provide access to the numerous articles in the encyclopedia that deal with the complex of church-state relations in the sixteenth century.] Persistent conflict over ...
Conservative Party, Canada

Conservative Party, Canada  

Early history (up to 1920)The Conservative Party emerged from the Liberal‐Conservative government in Upper Canada of Sir John A. Macdonald (b. 1815, d. 1891) in 1854. After the creation of the ...
Daniel Mannix

Daniel Mannix  

(1864–1963),Catholic ecclesiastic. Born in Co. Cork, he taught at Maynooth and became president there in 1903, before being appointed coadjutor archbishop of Melbourne in 1912 and archbishop in 1917. ...
encyclical

encyclical  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A papal letter sent to all bishops of the Roman Catholic Church. The word is recorded (as an adjective) from the mid 17th century, and comes via late Latin from Greek enkuklios ‘circular, general’.
Estado Novo (New State)

Estado Novo (New State)  

The official name of the Portuguese dictatorship, which was established by Carmona in 1926 and came to bear the imprint of Salazar (1928–68). Its central features were economic stringency and ...
ethnic group

ethnic group  

A community or group of people with distinctive social, cultural, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish them from others in the same or different country or society. Members of an ethnic ...
Falange

Falange  

A Spanish political party, the Falange Española. Founded in 1933 by José António Primo de Rivera, the son of General Primo de Rivera, its members were equally opposed to the reactionary Right and the ...
François Duvalier

François Duvalier  

(b. 14 Apr. 1907, d. 21 Apr. 1971).President of Haiti 1957–71 A medical doctor by profession, which earned him the nickname ‘Papa Doc’, he became President with the support of Black nationalist ...
Free, secular and compulsory

Free, secular and compulsory  

Were conditions set down in Victoria's Education Act of 1872 and followed by other colonies, though their education systems were not so rigorously secular. They retained separate religious ...
Germans in Australia

Germans in Australia  

Have been part of Australian history from the beginning of British settlement (Governor Phillip and Augustus Alt, the first surveyor, were sons of German fathers). Substantial immigration began in ...

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