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Business Roundtable.

Business Roundtable.  

The Business Roundtable, an elite lobbying and advisory organization of chief executive officers (CEOs) from two hundred of the nation's largest business enterprises, was established in 1972 in ...
City Planning.

City Planning.  

City planning arose early in American life. European colonizers designed St. Augustine (Spain, 1565), New Amsterdam (Holland, 1625–1626), Williamsburg (England, 1699), and New Orleans (France, 1722) ...
Economic Regulation.

Economic Regulation.  

The objectives of economic regulation are usually mixed: to achieve an appropriate balance between efficiency and equity, to steer acquisitive human urges into productive channels, and to strike ...
ENERGY CRISIS OF THE 1970s.

ENERGY CRISIS OF THE 1970s.  

The energy crisis of the 1970s damaged the American economy and decisively affected presidential politics. Retaliating for Western support of Israel in the October 1973 Mideast War, Arab members of ...
Expansionism

Expansionism  

Expansionism—the desire of nations and empires to annex lands, peoples, or resources belonging to others—is a peculiar characteristic of a world order where boundaries are subject to the ambitions of ...
factory system

factory system  

The ‘factory system’ has been an important element in the accelerating processes of industrialization known as the industrial revolution. As British industrial enterprises expanded in the 18th cent., ...
Federal Regulatory Agencies.

Federal Regulatory Agencies.  

The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a ...
Foreign Trade, U.S.

Foreign Trade, U.S.  

Trade and commerce have had a formative influence on America from the Colonial Era onward. The British colonial system embraced the doctrines of mercantilism, with its closely regulated trade, ...
gilded Age

gilded Age  

The period of expansion and reconstruction in the USA after the American Civil War when much new wealth was created. The phrase was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley ...
Grain Processing Industry.

Grain Processing Industry.  

An ancient industry, grain processing in America can be traced from the simple mortar and pestle used by Native Americans and colonists alike to complex modern processing centers and multinational ...
Haymarket Riot

Haymarket Riot  

(1886)An outbreak of violence in Chicago, USA. A protest at the McCormick Harvester Works culminated in a riot in which 100 people were wounded and several died. Eight anarchists were convicted of ...
Levi Strauss

Levi Strauss  

(1829–1902)Levi Strauss was born in Butterheim, Bavaria on 26 February 1829, the son of Hirsch and Rebecca Strauss. He died in San Francisco, California on 26 September 1902. After ...
Lowell Mills.

Lowell Mills.  

The cotton textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, were the most famous factories in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. From them emanated innovations in technology ...
mass marketing

mass marketing  

Marketing in which the same product, price, promotion, and distribution is used for all consumers in a particular market.
Middle West, The.

Middle West, The.  

Among the great subnational regions of the United States, the Middle West is the vaguest in location and identity. Although some situate the area entirely west of the Mississippi River ...
National Association of Manufacturers.

National Association of Manufacturers.  

The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) was founded in 1895 to facilitate manufacturers' influence in promoting U.S. foreign trade and setting protective tariffs.Its leaders soon turned their ...
National Civic Federation.

National Civic Federation.  

The National Civic Federation (NCF), founded in 1900, sought to improve labor-capital relations by finding middle ground between the “socialism” of radical labor unions and the “anarchism” of ...
National Industrial Conference Board

National Industrial Conference Board  

(since 1970, the Conference Board), founded in 1916, an association of business firms that sponsors research on a variety of business topics, notably labor and personnel issues.Until the 1930s ...
National Recovery Administration

National Recovery Administration  

(NRA), a federal agency created under the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and abolished after the Supreme Court held this act unconstitutional in 1935.The agency was modeled on ...
Northern Securities Case

Northern Securities Case  

(1904), landmark antitrust case.In 1901 three powerful business leaders, J. Pierpont Morgan, James. J. Hill, and E.H. Harriman, decided to cooperate rather than compete, forming the Northern ...

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