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Antarctica

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Antarctic Circle

Antarctic Circle  

The area of land and sea that lies south of latitude 66°S, around Antarctica.
Antarctic Circumpolar Current

Antarctic Circumpolar Current  

The largest and most important ocean current in the southern hemisphere. It flows in an eastward direction around Antarctica, and occupies a wide tract of water in the South Pacific, South Atlantic, ...
Antarctic Convergence

Antarctic Convergence  

A line of convergence in the ocean surrounding Antarctica between latitudes 50° S and 60° S, where cold surface water from Antarctica (Antarctic Surface Water) sinks below warmer, less saline water ...
Antarctic ozone hole

Antarctic ozone hole  

The seasonal depletion of ozone over much of Antarctica. See also ozone hole.
Antarctic realm

Antarctic realm  

A biogeographical realm in the southern hemisphere, which contains a variety of ecosystems from temperate forest and grassland in New Zealand to tundra and ice sheets in Antarctica.
Arctic

Arctic  

The area lying above 66.5° North that is dominated by the Arctic Ocean but also includes large land areas in Canada, Russia, Greenland, Scandinavia, Iceland, and Alaska. Some of the land areas, ...
Benguela current

Benguela current  

The eastern boundary current of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, which begins as a northward flow off the Cape of Good Hope, then skirting the western African coast equatorwards until around ...
carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide  

A colourless, odourless gas which is the fourth most abundant component of the air in the homosphere, amounting to about 0.035 per cent by volume. It is released by volcanoes, part of the source ...
cold climate

cold climate  

A climate that has temperatures of 10° to 20°C for up to four months a year, and is cooler over the rest of the year, as found in places like the Arctic and Antarctica. The two biomes associated with ...
continent

continent  

One of the seven major land areas on the Earth, which are North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica.
cryosphere

cryosphere  

That part of the Earth where the surface is frozen, comprising the area covered by ice sheets and glaciers, permafrost regions, and sea areas covered by ice, at least in winter.
glacier

glacier  

A mass of ice which may be moving, or has moved, overland: when enough ice has accumulated, a glacier will start to move forwards. A glacier may be seen to be the result of a balance between ...
global warming

global warming  

The gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants.
Gondwanaland

Gondwanaland  

A ‘supercontinent’: a continuous land surface formed of the now separate units of Africa, Madagascar, Antarctica, Australia, and India. Gondwanaland started in the earliest Paleozoic at the break-up ...
Greenland Ice Sheet

Greenland Ice Sheet  

The Greenland ice sheet covers about 80 percent of the island of Greenland, between 60° and 83° N latitude in the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest ice sheet ...
ice sheet

ice sheet  

A large ice mass, with an area usually greater than about 50 000 km2, made up of ice domes and outlet glaciers. The Antarctic ice sheet is the world's largest, with an area of about 11.5 × 106 km2 ...
International Geophysical Year

International Geophysical Year  

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(IGY)The period from 1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958, during which an extensive, international programme of geophysical observations was carried out over all parts of the globe. The period was chosen ...
ozone hole

ozone hole  

General name for a sharp seasonal decrease in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere that occurs over Antarctica in the spring, was first detected during the 1970s, and is growing larger (a ...
polar ice cap

polar ice cap  

An area of permanent ice at high latitudes, beyond the tundra, where average temperature in each month is below freezing point, and annual precipitation is low (usually less than 250 millimetres a ...
South Pole

South Pole  

The most southerly point on Earth, at 90°S latitude in the southern hemisphere; the southern end of the Earth's rotational axis. Contrast North Pole. See also Antarctica.

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