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Muhammad Abduh

(1849—1905)

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al- Azhar

al- Azhar  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Founded in 969/970, this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of Cairo. ...
fundamentalism

fundamentalism  

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Religion
A form of Protestant Christianity which upholds belief in the strict and literal interpretation of the Bible, including its narratives, doctrines, prophecies, and moral laws. Also, strict maintenance ...
Islamic State

Islamic State  

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Religion
Modern ideological position associated with political Islam. In classical theory, the Islamic concept of state is based on the principles of group/community, justice, and leadership. The legitimacy ...
Jamal al-Din al- Afghani

Jamal al-Din al- Afghani  

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Religion
(d. 1897)Thinker and political activist. Born and raised in Iran, although claimed to be of Afghan origin. Educated in Iran and Iraq. Traveled to India, where he came into contact with British ...
jihad

jihad  

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Religion
A holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. The name comes from Arabic jihād, literally ‘effort’, expressing, in Muslim thought, struggle on behalf of God and Islam.
miracle

miracle  

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Religion
A surprising and welcome event that is not explicable by natural or scientific laws and is therefore considered to be the work of a divine agency. Recorded from Middle English, the word comes via Old ...
Muhammad Rashid Rida

Muhammad Rashid Rida  

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Religion
(d. 1935)Syrian Islamic revivalist, reformer, and writer. Lived in Egypt from 1897 until his death. Close associate and disciple of Muhammad Abduh. Published the journal Al-manar to articulate and ...
Mustafa al- Maraghi

Mustafa al- Maraghi  

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Religion
(d. 1945)Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. ...
Mu'tazila

Mu'tazila  

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Religion
The Muʿtazilah were a major theological school of Islam that was renowned for holding reason (ʿaql) above scripture and other sources of religious knowledge and for its development of the ...
Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-

Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-  

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Religion
ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq (1888–1966)was an Egyptian sharīʿah (Islamic law) judge, controversial intellectual, and author of al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm: Baḥth fī al-khilāfah wa al-ḥukūmah fī al-Islām (Islam ...
repentance

repentance  

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Religion
The acknowledgement and condemnation of one's sins, coupled with a turning to God. It includes sorrow for the sin committed, confession of guilt, and the purpose of amendment.
Revival and Renewal

Revival and Renewal  

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Religion
The Arabic terms ihya (revival) and tajdid (renewal) are typically used in the context of modern Islamic movements, although they have premodern roots. Premodern renewal was usually associated with a ...
Salafi

Salafi  

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Religion
Name (derived from salaf, “pious ancestors”) given to a reform movement led by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh at the turn of the twentieth century. Emphasized restoration of Islamic ...
Shirk

Shirk  

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Religion
Association. Theological term referring to the association of someone or something with God, that is, putting someone or something in the place of God, thus deviating from monotheism.See also ...
Tafsīr

Tafsīr  

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Religion
Quranic exegesis. Elucidation, explanation, interpretation, and commentary carried out in order to understand the Quran and its commandments. Muhammad is considered the most authoritative interpreter ...
Tawḥīd

Tawḥīd  

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Religion
(Arab., verb. noun of waḥḥada, ‘make one’).Asserting the oneness of God, the supreme duty, and passion, of Islamic theology. His unity must be affirmed, in strenuous negation of all ...
theology

theology  

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Literally the ‘science of God’. Among the Greek Fathers the word came to denote either the doctrine of the Trinity (i.e. of God's Being as opposed to His dealings with the created order) or prayer ...
Waṭan

Waṭan  

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Religion
The term waṭan is formed from the root w-ṭ-n, meaning “to dwell or reside.” In traditional Islamic culture, waṭan indicated a person's place of birth or residence. The word was ...

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