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Abkhaz-Adyghe Languages

Abkhaz-Adyghe Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
453 words
Illustration(s):
1

Also called Northwest Caucasian or West Caucasian languages. They are spoken primarily in the northwestern Caucasus, though there are also

Ache-Chamic Languages

Ache-Chamic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
635 words
Illustration(s):
1

A branch of Western Malayo-Polynesian. They are spoken in Sumatra, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and China.

Acoustic Phonetics

Acoustic Phonetics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,337 words
Illustration(s):
6

Sound waves form the physical link between speaker and hearer. Central to the field of acoustic phonetics are the concepts

actantial model

actantial model   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,032 words
Illustration(s):
1

Actant is a term that was introduced into narratology and semiotics in 1966 by Algirdas Julien Greimas as a synonym

acting

acting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,351 words
Illustration(s):
1

In theater, the actor is the key element in the complex network of signs that constitutes theatrical performance. It is

Adamawa Languages

Adamawa Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,280 words
Illustration(s):
1

Spoken in eastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, and southern Chad, with some extension into the Central African Republic. They form one

Adjectivalization in Morphology

Adjectivalization in Morphology   Reference library

Petra Sleeman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
9,604 words
Illustration(s):
18

Adjectival derivation is the derivation of an adjective from a verb, a noun, or an adjective. Fábregas and Marín (...

Adjunction

Adjunction   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
709 words
Illustration(s):
4

In the theory of generative grammar, transformations are said to map phrase markers into other phrase markers. Transformational operations are

Admiralty Islands Languages

Admiralty Islands Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
930 words
Illustration(s):
1

Spoken in Papua New Guinea, on the Admiralty Islands; they constitute a top-level component of the Oceanic Languages.

African Languages

African Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,488 words
Illustration(s):
2

The African continent forms one of the most complex linguistic areas of the world; estimates of the number of languages

Agreement

Agreement   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

This entry includes the following sub-entries:

Agreement Morphology

Agreement Morphology   Reference library

Patricia Cabredo Hofherr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
8,689 words
Illustration(s):
66
Agreement is defined as the systematic covariance of one element with another, as illustrated in (1) by gender and number agreement on the determiner and the adjective and in (2) by ... More
Algonquian Languages

Algonquian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,551 words
Illustration(s):
1

The Algonquian (less commonly, Algonkian) family comprises 30 or more languages, spoken around 1600 in northeastern and central North America—and,

allegory

allegory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,899 words
Illustration(s):
1

encompasses messages expressed in manners other than plain speaking. The term is derived from the Greek allos (other) and agoreuein

Altaic Languages

Altaic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

This group of language families occupies large areas of Central and East Asia. From the 19th century on, this term

American Descriptivist Morphology in the 1950s

American Descriptivist Morphology in the 1950s   Reference library

John Goldsmith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
15,424 words
Illustration(s):
3
I hope in this article to indicate how American linguists in the middle of the 20th century thought about the nature of morphemes and words, and the relationships found among words and ... More
Amharic

Amharic   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,938 words
Illustration(s):
1

The most prominent language of Ethiopia, Amharic was the official language under the constitution adopted in 1987 but was downgraded

Analogy in Morphology

Analogy in Morphology   Reference library

David Fertig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
8,998 words
Illustration(s):
8

Linguists use the term analogy in a wide variety of senses. This article focuses on its use in the Neogrammarian tradition that dates back to the last quarter of the ...

Andamanese Languages

Andamanese Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
297 words
Illustration(s):
1

A family which comprises the family of indigenous languages of the Andaman Islands of India.

Arabic

Arabic   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,849 words
Illustration(s):
2

Before the Arab expansion as a result of the Muslim conquests in the 7th and 8th centuries CE, Arabic was

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