9/11 Reference library
Matthew Pratt Guterl
The term “9/11” is shorthand for the events of 11 September 2001. On that date, four U.S. planes were hijacked by nineteen members of the Al-Qaeda terrorist group. The surprisingly low-tech hijackings—relying largely on boxcutters and pepper spray—were the product of years of careful preparation and surveillance, much of it in the United States. Leaders of the group, for instance, received flight training at American schools. In the early morning, three of the hijacked planes were used as blunt-force missiles loaded with jet fuel. Two of these struck the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, a symbol of American financial might and long a target of international terrorism. The third struck the side of the Pentagon building in Washington, D.C., which houses the Department of Defense. The fourth jet crashed into the rural Pennsylvania countryside—brought down, it seems, during a fight between the hijackers and passengers who had been in communication with friends and family on the ground by cell phone and were thus aware of the broader significance of their plane's takeover. At the World Trade Center the heat from burning jet fuel ultimately led to the complete and catastrophic collapse of the towers. At the Pentagon, where hundreds died, the secretary of defense, ...
43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands Reference library
Edwin Paul Wieringa
The region of insular or maritime Southeast Asia, which today comprises six young nation-states, encompasses not only hundreds of languages and literatures but also quite different cultural and political backgrounds. Indonesia (independence: ...
A&P Reference library
A&P dominated the grocery business in the United States for much of the twentieth century. It had a particularly large
A/r/tography Reference library
Natalie LeBlanc and Rita L. Irwin
Through a post-structural, hermeneutic, and phenomenological paradigm, a/r/tography was conceptualized on the premise that multifaceted, lived experience and subjective perspectives make substantial contributions to complex phenomena (...
Aachen Reference library
City in Nordrhein-Westfalia, Germany. It was the birthplace and residence of Charlemagne, ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, and remained associated
Aachen [Aach; Ach; Acha], Hans [Johann; Joan] von (1552) Reference library
(b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, 4 March 1615).
German painter and draughtsman, active also
Aaron, Hank (b. 5 February 1934) Reference library
(b. 5 February 1934),
baseball player, baseball executive, civil rights advocate, and businessman. Henry
aback Quick reference
the situation of the sails of a square-rigged ship when the yards are trimmed to bring the wind to bear on their forward side. Sails are laid aback purposely to stop a ship's way through the water or to assist her in ...
Abate [Abbate], Nicolò [Niccolò] dell’ (1509–12) Reference library
(b Modena, 1509–12; d?Fontainebleau, 1571).
Italian painter and draughtsman. He was one of the
ʿAbbas Hilmi II (1874) Reference library
the third and last khedive of Egypt, ruled the country from 1892 to 1914. ʿAbbas was the seventh ruler in Mehmet ʿAli’s dynasty, which was established in the early nineteenth century. ʿAbbas came to the throne at the very young age of eighteen in January ...
Abbasid Reference library
Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from