9/11 Reference library
Matthew Pratt Guterl
The term “9/11” is shorthand for the events of 11 September 2001. On that date, four U.S. planes were hijacked by nineteen members of the Al-Qaeda terrorist group. The surprisingly low-tech hijackings—relying largely on boxcutters and pepper spray—were the product of years of careful preparation and surveillance, much of it in the United States. Leaders of the group, for instance, received flight training at American schools. In the early morning, three of the hijacked planes were used as blunt-force missiles loaded with jet fuel. Two of these struck the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, a symbol of American financial might and long a target of international terrorism. The third struck the side of the Pentagon building in Washington, D.C., which houses the Department of Defense. The fourth jet crashed into the rural Pennsylvania countryside—brought down, it seems, during a fight between the hijackers and passengers who had been in communication with friends and family on the ground by cell phone and were thus aware of the broader significance of their plane's takeover. At the World Trade Center the heat from burning jet fuel ultimately led to the complete and catastrophic collapse of the towers. At the Pentagon, where hundreds died, the secretary of defense, ...
20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800 Reference library
1 Origins 2 The Stationers’ Company 3 Beyond London 4 MS circulation and playbooks 5 Religious publishing 6 Copyright and
43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands Reference library
1 General introduction 2 Writing systems 3 Dating systems 4 Book forms 5 Printed books
1 General introduction
The region of
‘A’isha bt. Abi Bakr Reference library
One of the wives of *Muhammad and the daughter of the first *caliph, *Abu Bakr (r. 622–4). She died in 678. She married Muhammad at the age of 9, and was his close confidante. She was also extremely controversial. An incident in which she was impugned of sexual misbehaviour occasioned the ...
A-10A Reference library
a heavily armored plane designed to destroy tanks and constructed around its powerful 30 mm gun and enormous munitions drum. Its wide combat radius and short takeoff and landing ability enable it to operate in and out of locations near front lines....
a-lee Quick reference
the position of the helm of a vessel when it has been pushed down to leeward. ‘Helm's a-lee’ is the response of the helmsman of a sailing vessel after putting the helm down on the order to ...
a-weigh Quick reference
the situation of the anchor at the moment it is broken out of the ground when being weighed. When the anchor is a-weigh the ship is no longer secured to the ground and will drift unless under sail or power....
A2A Quick reference
The Access to Archives web site, which contains catalogues of archives held in record offices across England.
AA abbr. Reference library
AAA abbr. Reference library