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anatomy

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Agostino Carracci

Agostino Carracci  

(1557–1602),Italian artist, born in Bologna; he was the elder brother of Annibale Carracci and the cousin of Ludovico Carracci. Agostino painted a well-known altarpiece, The Communion of St Jerome ...
animal

animal  

Animal Farm a fable (1945) by George Orwell which consists of a satire on Russian Communism as it developed under Stalin. The animals of the farm, led by the pigs, revolt against the cruel farmer, ...
anthropology

anthropology  

In philosophical usage, a general theory of human nature, sometimes thought to be the necessary foundation of history and all social sciences. The philosophy of anthropology considers such issues as ...
Asaph the Physician

Asaph the Physician  

Asaph Judaeus or ‘Asaph ben Berachyahu’, pseudonym attached to the ‘Book of Remedies’ (Sepher Refuoth), considered the oldest Hebrew medical work, variously dated from the 6th to the 10th century. ...
capital punishment

capital punishment  

Was formerly of central importance in all European criminal justice systems. Although the history of capital punishment in Scotland has been little studied, it is clear that hanging was the standard ...
Charles Estienne

Charles Estienne  

(1504–64),French printer, lexicographer, and physician, the third son of Henri Estienne the Elder and the younger brother of Robert Estienne. He studied medicine at Paris and in 1545 published ...
dissection and autopsy

dissection and autopsy  

The Christianization of Europe, as it had developed by 500, arguably opened the way for future progress in anatomical study via dissection. In contrast with Hellenistic society’s distaste for contact ...
execution

execution  

1 The process of carrying out a sentence of death imposed by a court. See also capital punishment.2 The completion of the formalities necessary for a written document to become legally valid. In the ...
Fasciculus medicinae

Fasciculus medicinae  

(1491)Compiled by German physician Johannes de Ketham from various treatises, it was the first printed compendium of medical illustrations, coloured in some early editions. The very traditional ...
Galen

Galen  

(129–199),Greek physician. He attempted to systematize the whole of medicine, making important discoveries in anatomy and physiology. His works became influential in Europe when retranslated from ...
Girolamo Cardano

Girolamo Cardano  

(1501–76)Italian physician and mathematician, whose Ars magna contained the first published solutions of the general cubic equation and the general quartic equation. Even though these were due to ...
Guido da Vigevano

Guido da Vigevano  

(c.1280–after 1349) Italian physician and writer who spent much of his life serving the French royal court.Guido wrote the Texarus regis, which contains advice on maintaining the king’s health ...
gynaecology

gynaecology  

n. the study of diseases of women and girls, particularly those affecting the female reproductive system. Compare obstetrics. —gynaecological adj. —gynaecologist n.
Henri of Mondeville

Henri of Mondeville  

(c.1260–after 1325) French surgeon, famous for his Chirurgia.Though Henri planned a work to consist of five parts, some parts were never finished because of his early death. He took ...
humours

humours  

In medieval science and medicine, the four chief fluids of the body, blood, phlegm, yellow bile (choler), and black bile (melancholy), that were thought to determine a person's physical and mental ...
Jacobus Sylvius

Jacobus Sylvius  

(c.1489–1555),French neo-Latin poet and medical humanist, born in Amiens, the son of a weaver, and educated by his brother François, who taught him Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Sylvius studied ...
John Caius

John Caius  

(1510–73).Refounder of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (1557), where he built (1560s and 1570s) the three Gates of Honour, Humility, and Virtue, remarkable for the refinement and correctness of ...
medicine

medicine  

In the mid-fourteenth century leprosy began to disappear from Europe, but new diseases arose to take its place: plague broke out in 1347, sweating sickness in 1485, typhus in 1489 ...
Mondino da Luzzi

Mondino da Luzzi  

(c.1265–1326)Professor at Bologna whose Anathomia (1316) was termed the first work totally dedicated to anatomy. His work was extremely influential in academic circles and remained a standard text to ...
morphology

morphology  

1. (linguistics) The study of the internal structure of words: see also morpheme; compare syntax.2. More generally, the study of the forms of things, as in Propp's Morphology of the Folktale (1928): ...

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