Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 June 2024


A Dictionary of Human Geography

Alisdair Rogers,

Noel Castree,

Rob Kitchin

A set of social relations that is used to discriminate against people based on their assumed *race. Given their political power, wealth, and historical precedent, racism is usually expressed as discrimination by white populations against ‘non-white’ people. Racism can be both overt, explicitly expressed through discourse and law, and materially through forms of violence, and covert in nature, working in more implicit and subtle ways to disenfranchise people through the restriction of life opportunities. Racism was initially based on the notion that there were distinct biological differences between supposed races. As this idea has been increasingly challenged, it has been replaced by cultural racism that posits that there are cultural differences between groups that explain their relative social position, and these differences mean that they are incompatible with each other. Both biological and cultural racism is expressed spatially through processes that work to limit access and mobility and increase ... ...

Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.