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date: 19 May 2024

turn (Fr.: doublé; Ger.: Doppelschlag; It.: gruppetto). 

The Oxford Companion to Music
Simon McVeighSimon McVeigh, David MilsomDavid Milsom

An ornament found chiefly in music of the 17th–19th centuries. It consists essentially of four notes encircling the main (notated) note—note above, main note, note below, and main note. Rhythmic variations are numerous and are often left to the performer's discretion, being heavily reliant on compositional context. The graphic sign is as shown in Exx. 1 and 2; in modern practice (as, for example, with the trill) chromatic inflections of the upper or lower note, or both, are indicated by sharp or flat signs placed above or below the turn sign as appropriate (see Ex. 2... ...

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