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date: 13 June 2024

James II , king of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland, b. 14 Oct. 1633, 2nd s. of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; acc. 6 Feb. 1685; deemed to have abdic. 11 Dec. 1688; m. (1) Anne, da. of Edward Hyde (later earl of Clarendon), 3 Sept. 1660; issue: Mary, Anne; (2) Mary, da. of Alfonso IV of Modena, 30 Sept. 1673; issue: James, Louisa; d. 6 Sept. 1701; bur. St Edmund's, church of the English Benedictines, Paris. 

The Kings and Queens of Britain

John Cannon,

Anne Hargreaves

James's conduct during his short reign was so inept that premature senility has been suggested. He inherited a stable throne, a healthy revenue, a large army, and a loyal Parliament, and within three years was in exile. A recent and sympathetic biographer has described James as ‘utterly humourless, lacking the intellect to rise above the minutiae of government … so egocentric that he was incapable of understanding the views of others’.... ...

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