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date: 30 May 2024


The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea
M. V. AngelM. V. Angel

a group of invertebrate animals including starfish (asteroids), sea urchins (echinoids), sea cucumbers (holothurians), brittle stars (ophuiroids), and sea lilies (crinoids). The basic design of the bodies is a radial symmetry with five arms as seen in starfish. They have internal skeletons constructed of plates of calcium carbonate elaborately slotted together. This skeleton provides support for their unique mode of movement based on tube feet. Each tube foot is a tiny, extensible, tubular structure that ends in a sucker and is powered by a hydraulic system. Individually, these are weak, but when acting in concert they are remarkably powerful.... ...

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