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date: 14 June 2024


The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea
 Dear Dear, Peter KempPeter Kemp

1 The documents by which naval officers hold their status as accredited officers in the navy in which they serve. It is normally issued when an officer reaches the rank of sub-lieutenant or its equivalent in other navies. In the case of ‘royal’ navies it is usually issued by the sovereign, and the cases of ‘republican’ navies by either the president or the national naval authority.... ...

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