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date: 22 September 2023

Changchun Yuan, 

The Oxford Companion to the Garden
Chen Cong-ZhouChen Cong-Zhou, Maggie KeswickMaggie Keswick

Beijing, China, was the first Qing-dynasty ‘imperial short-stay villa’ type of garden. Called the Garden of the Exuberant Spring, it was built after the Kangxi Emperor's two southern tours in the 1680s, on the ruined site of Qinghua Yuan, an estate once owned by Li Wei of the Ming dynasty. The 91-hectare/225-acre garden was located somewhere near the present Beijing University on the outskirts of the capital, and was planned, designed, and supervised by Ye Tao, an artist born south of the Changjiang (Yangtze river) who specialized in landscape painting. The rockeries were executed by Zhang Ran, the best-known rock master of the time. After it was complete, the Kangxi Emperor spent most of his time there, and the Qianlong Emperor lived and studied in it from his childhood until he came to the throne.... ...

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