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date: 05 December 2023

paper mills 

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Manufactories where the process of *sheet or *web formation to make paper is performed. They must incorporate a water supply, have areas suitable for the storage of raw materials and ancillary equipment for their processing, and contain a basic finishing area where the webs or sheets can be packed, stored, and transported. In most developed countries, effluent treatment facilities will also be needed to remove contaminants prior to release of process water back into the environment. All such sites process the raw pulp by grinding, breaking, beating, or refining, in order to hydrate it sufficiently to form a sheet with the desired physical and optical properties. This aqueous pulp dispersion is then mixed with appropriate pigments and chemical additives before the admixture is drained through a mesh, pressed, and dried to form either a sheet or a continuous web. Technically this is where the paper mill’s involvement can end, and any post-processing—which will involve either physical or chemical surface treatment or chemical impregnation of the paper—can be performed at an external factory, before final conversion to the customer’s requirements in terms of sheet or web size. However, generally some or all such treatment will also be performed at the site where the raw sheet or web is manufactured. The term ‘mill’ is a reference to the days when water or, less commonly, wind produced the power required for the various stages of the paper-manufacturing process. If pulp is produced on the same site from its constituent raw materials, the whole location is known as an integrated paper mill.... ...

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