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date: 24 May 2024

direct carving. 

The Oxford Dictionary of Art
Ian ChilversIan Chilvers

The practice of producing carved sculpture (particularly stone sculpture) by cutting directly into the material, as opposed to having it reproduced from a plaster model using mechanical aids and assistants. Although this might seem a purely technical matter, in the early 20th century it became associated with aesthetic and ethical issues, particularly in Britain and in France. During the 19th century it was customary for sculpture to be exhibited in plaster; it was much more expensive and time-consuming to produce marble carvings (or bronze casts), so these were usually made only when firmly commissioned. A successful sculptor could become the administrator of a large studio producing numerous, almost identical versions of popular works (... ...

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