The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 06 October 2022


The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World
Thomas WidlokThomas Widlok, Thomas WidlokThomas Widlok

[This entry includes two subentries, an overview and a discussion of hunter-gatherers in Africa.]Hunter-gatherer societies, often considered to belong to the period of the Stone Age when all humans lived by hunting and gathering, are genuine phenomena of the modern world in two senses. First, modern societies have created their own self-image and such key notions as “progress” or “civilization” in reference and opposition to the notion of “hunter-gatherers”; the notion of “hunter-gatherer” is the prototypical counterimage of the premodern Other. Second, hunter-gatherer ways of life have persisted or reemerged throughout history as strategies successfully occupying niches in a broad spectrum of ecological zones and of larger economic systems.... ...

Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.