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date: 12 April 2024

Fertility and Infertility. 

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History
Gwen RobbinsGwen Robbins

Fertility is a measure of reproduction that can be approached from cross-cultural, biocultural, and evolutionary perspectives to characterize many facets of life in historical populations. Fertility is commonly measured at the population level using ratios such as the crude birth rate, calculated by dividing the number of live births by the total population size, then multiplying the result by 1,000. The crude birth rate represents the average number of live births across the entire population, regardless of the population structure. The crude birth rate is shaped by the age structure of the population (particularly the number of women of reproductive age) but does not account for it specifically. Alternatively, the age-specific fertility rate is the number of births per woman (or per 1,000 women) in a given year in a specified age category. The rates are calculated among women aged 15-49 and are generally highest in young adults (ages 20–35 years).... ...

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